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Krita tutorial

¿Porqué querrías o deberías probar Krita? El artista David Revoy denominó a Krita' una "Bestia para producir". Aquí está mi propia lista de razonas por las que deberías echarle un vistazo:

Note-box-icon.png
 
Nota
En la web de Krita se indica que "Krita no es divertida sin una tablet." Es una gran mentira, es uno de los programas más divertidos de usar aunque no tengas una tablet. xD (Yo tampoco tengo una. Probablemente sea más divertido con una tablet, pero no necesitas una)



Modo de Simetría/Reflejo

Voy a comenzar por esta parte porque es corta. Pero.. wow, ¡modo de simetría!

  • Activar o desacvitar solo con el botón de la parte superior
  • Redefine el eje con Mayús + R, y después pulsa clic
  • Modo de Simetría + Pincel de boceto es un combo perfecto. Aunque puede ser contraproducente para tu productividad, porque estarás ocupado divirtiéndote y creando monigotes en 5 minutos.
Krita-tutorial1-I-1.png
Krita-tutorial1-I-2.png


Monigote hecho en 5 minutos... con un ratón! (espero que finalmente te aburrirás de hacer esto y empezarás a realizar dibujos más complejos)

Krita-tutorial1-I-3.png


Alternativamente, Krita tiene un modo multi-pincel, para crear dibujos de tipo caleidoscopio. Cambia el eje o define el número de ejes en las opciones de Herramienta

Una interfaz orientada para pintar

Dibujo

Lo más fabuloso de pintar con Krita es que su interfaz está orientada a ayudarte a dibujar rápida y eficazmente.

  • Pinceles preestablecidos: Krita posee numerosos motores de pinceles. Afortunadamente viene con un gran conjunto de pinceles preestablecidos por defecto, hecho por artistas, para ser usados por artistas. Solo haz clic para seleccionarlos. Esto se explica más adelante.
  • Mayús + Arrastrar: Cambia el tamaño del pincel dinámicamente. Esto ahorra mucho tiempo.
  • I y O: Reduce / Aumenta la opacidad (o arrastra el deslizador de arriba)
  • Rueda del ratón: Acercar y alejar
  • Ctrl + Click: Selecciona el color.
  • Tab: Modo de sólo Lienzo
  • M: Imagen espejada.
  • B: Cambia desde cualquier modo que estés usando al modo Pincel/Mano alzada.
  • E: Modo de borrado. En Krita, cualquier pincel puede usarse como una goma de borrar.
  • Ctrl + Z / Ctrl + Mayús + Z para deshacer/rehacer (como la mayoría de programas)


Ktip.png
 
Tip
También puedes añador o eliminar atajos de teclado desde el menú. Yo asigné Mayús + B para dibujar dinámicamente.


'Tip: ¿Quieres dibujar líneas suaves con el ratón? La mayoría de los pinceles de Krita tienen algoritmos de suavizado incorporados, pero si quieres dibujar unas líneas suaves bonitas aunque tengas ratón, sigue estos pasos:

  • Localiza el pincel preconfigurado con nombre Curve_Smooth
  • Selecciona el modo de pincel "Paint with brushes using dynamic movement"
  • En las opciones de la herramienta, aumenta hasta 50-70.
Krita-tutorial1-II.1.png

Colores

Espera, ¡aún hay más! Krita además hace muy fácil la selección de colores.

  • D: Restablece los colores de Primer Plano/Fondo a Negro/Blanco
  • X: Intercambia los colores de primer plano y fondo
  • Retroceso / May + Retroceso: Rellena con los colores de primer plano/fondo (relleno rápido)

¿Ves el selector de color de la izquierda? Haz clic en la pequeña herramienta en la esquina superior izquierda para mostrar más opciones y elige el tipo que se adapte a tus preferencias.

Krita-tutorial1-II.2-1.png


Además puedes acceder a un montón de selectores en el lienzo a través de atajos de teclado:

  • Mayús + N: Selector de sombres mínimo
  • Mayús + M: Selector de sombras de Mypaint
  • Mayús + I: Selector de color
  • H: Historial de color
  • C: Colores frecuentes


Krita-tutorial1-II.2-2.png


Espera, ¿Qué son todos esos selectores de color? Hablaremos sobre ellos más adelante.

¡El poderoso botón derecho!

El botón derecho en Krita es impresionante. Hará que aparezca este pequeño e impresionante selector emergente (botón derecho de nuevo para ocultarlo de nuevo):

Krita-tutorial1-II.3-1.png


Desde el centro hacia afuera:

  • Selector de color
  • Histórico de la paleta (los colores más recientes usados)
  • Paleta de pinceles

Para añadir pinceles a la paleta, haz clic en Guardar en Paleteta en la barra de herramientas principal, y guardar tus pinceles favoritos. Actualmente, Krita solo permite 10 pinceles como máximo:

Krita-tutorial1-II.3-2.png


Consejo: Lienzo en pantalla completa. ¿Te hace falta espacio en la pantalla? Suelo usar un PC de escritorio, pero puede ser que tengas que utilizar un portátil con una pantalla pequeña. Bien:

  • Tab: Para entrar y salir del modo 'Solo el lienzo'
  • Botón derecho: Para acceder al selector de color y tus pinceles favoritos
  • Puedes controlar el tamaño del pincel (Mayús-arrastrar) y la opacidad (I y O) sin usar la barra de herramientas
  • Si necesitas otro tipo de selector de color, ¿recuerdas la sección anterior?

Los motores de los pinceles

As noted:

  • Krita has an Excellent default brush presets, that you can access either from the Icon-paintop settings 01.png button (choose brush preset) in the top toolbar (to the left of Mode drop down list), or a docker to the right. Play around with them to choose a few favourites.
  • Personally, the fact that Krita comes with great public domain presets matters a lot to me, because while there are many resources online, most are under Attribution licenses. I want to respect the wishes of the authors, but keeping track of all those brushes is just such a pain, so I end up not using them.
  • If there are brushes you like a lot, save them to the Brush Palette. Currently Krita only allows you to save up to 10 brushes this way.

You've probably noticed that this wasn't the main way to access brushes, however. I won't try to explain all the different brush engines, but here are a few main things to try out.

(At this point I noticed that I'm unable to take screenshots with the brush panel open, whoops! Here's a screenshot from the Krita site instead)

Krita-tutorial1-III.png


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Note
Although many brushes are categorized as "Experimental", they're quite stable...


Pincel de píxeles

Others have written more in-depth tutorials on brushes, so I'll just give an overview of some of the options:

  • Brush tip: autobrush vs predefined brush. "Predefined" brush will give you a nice old boring generic round or square or whatever shape. What's more interesting is the "Predefined brushes" tab:
Krita-tutorial1-III.1-1.png


So a commenter once praised me on the background of this pic I'd done? I didn't have the heart to tell him that I got lazy and just slapped that background up in a few minutes with some cheap'ol predefined brushes... (it's out!)

Ktip.png
 
Tip
To add some texture over a smooth shading, just click on the area once with a low-opacity texture-y brush (not to be confused with texture mode below).


  • Texture: Starting with Krita 2.5, you can add texture to the brushes! You can do pre-defined brushes and textures simultaneously! Like if you want to do rocky snake scales.
Krita-tutorial1-III.1-2.png
(too bad there aren't any actual snake scales among the default textures. Anybody knows where I can get some?)
  • Dynamics: Krita has a Whole lot of Dynamics options for its pixel brushes. There are Youtube tutorials covering that, so I won't get into that. But you can basically map opacity, size, spacing, mirror, softness, sharpness, rotation and scatter dynamics to a number of factors.
Krita-tutorial1-III.1-3.png

Pincel de boceto

Sketch Brush was adapted from Project Harmony . I call it the cheat brush:

  • Parameters to fiddle with are under Brush Size: Line width, Offset scale, Density
  • This brush can be used to make rough sketches, but also for achieving pencil-like or ink-like shading
  • I like to use it for drawing details and hair shading. For example, I'd draw rough areas, smudge them to get proper shading, then draw in details like edges with sketch brush.


Krita-tutorial1-III.2.png

Tips:

  • Remember that you can toggle the background and foreground colors with X. So if you're sketching in black on a white background, you can toggle to white to erase. The result is nicer than if you're just erasing big chunks with a hard round shape.
  • If you're sketching on a new transparent layer, turn on the Erase mode with E to erase instead. Basically you can easily fix anything easily.
  • You can resize this brush. A smaller brush will have less of those in-between lines.

Pinceles de partículas y curvas

These somewhat similar-looking brushes look like they're just there to be pretty, but they can achieve some interesting results:

  • Curve_smooth (a curve brush preset) + paint dynamically mode + increase drag in the tool options = really smooth lines (see example in Drawing)
  • of course they are useful for decorative effects
  • they should be useful for some elements of clothes.


Krita-tutorial1-III.3.png

Pincel de emborronado

Krita's smudge brushes have some interesting properties. In fact, depending on the settings, they are either pure smudge brushes or paint brushes with smudge effects. Erm... I'll just show you some:

Krita-tutorial1-III.4.png


Tips:

  • That brush on the bottom-right is the "basic_mix_soft" preset. It will take the selected color (red here) and mix it somewhat with the background color it is being painted on.
  • Drawing small circles over the color changes can get you a "blend" effect (that's right, It's the "don't Ever smudge your colors!!" thing that every artist warns you against. I'm too lazy to build stuff up gradually, sorry. D: )

Other brushes

I'll leave you to test the other brushes on your own. A favourite technique of mine so far is to take a low-opacity Basic_Paint_Shade brush to block in rough colors then paint over them with some of the smudge brushes to get painterly-like smudes:

Krita-tutorial1-III.5.png


More brush presets are available, see Links

Brush composite modes

See that mode thing at the top? It dictates the composite mode of your brush. For example, darken only will only leave a trace if the color of the brush is darker than the color it is painting over.

Tips:

  • You can add modes to favourites. I suggest adding the following:
    • Arithmetic -> Multiply
    • HSL -> Hue HSL and Color HSL (HSL = Hue, Saturation, Lightness)
    • Lighten -> Screen (or one of the Dodge options)
    • Mix -> Normal, Overlay
    • Mix -> Erase: this is more for layer modes (layers and brushes share the same favourite modes).
  • if you're like me, and bad at choosing colors, just do everything in greyscale first, using multiple layers as appropriate. Then lock the layer transparencies, and pass over the gray with a brush on Color HSL mode (gradients work great too). It is also very easy to change colors this way.
  • There are actually preset brushes for functions such as "color", "darken", "lighten" etc.!
Krita-tutorial1-III.6.png

Other stuff

Layers and layer styles

The layer types you'll be most interested in are Paint Layers and Group Layers. Notice that layer modes share the same favourites as brush modes.

Tips:

  • If you have a lineart layer, set it at the very top as a Multiply layer. Duplicate it then merge a few times if you think it isn't dark enough.
  • Color layers: Remember I said I was bad at colors? Another way to do this is to:
    • First paint in greyscale
    • Make a layer with Overlay mode on top. Paint colors on That one. That's it.
    • If you are using multiple layers and don't want the color to go outside of bounds, Duplicate the greyscale, lock the transparency of the new layer (checkered box), and fill it with whatever colors you want. You can't do this with just a brush on Overlay mode, because the brush will change the darkness/light values of your greyscale.


Krita-tutorial1-IV.1.png
  • Erase mode: this funny mode where everything you draw on an Erase layer basically creates holes on the layers below (like a mask, just faster). Basically set an Erase layer as the top layer in a group of layers. Anything you draw on it will erase corresponding parts in all the layers below (but only of that group). Good for punching holes and frills.

Perspective grid

Krita has this awesome guide called a perspective grid.

  • Choose the tool
  • Click 3 points on the canvas and the grid will appear.
  • Drag on corners to adjust
  • Drag on middle points to make a new "side" appear
  • Click on X to delete


Krita-tutorial1-IV.2.png

Composition dock

The Composition dock basically saves layer visibility states. Suppose you have multiple layer groups, each with a greyscale layer and several color effect layers. You want to be able to easily switch off the visibility of all color layers, and leave only the greyscale layers visible.

You can achieve that with the Composition dock. It saves your current layer visibility setup.

Krita-tutorial1-IV.3.png

New files and saving

I'll just end up with some basics that you'll only need to read once.

  • Starting a new file: Just choose Custom Image and go with the defaults. There are a lot of options there, but if you don't know what they are, then you probably don't need to change them.
  • Saving: Krita has its own .kra ("Krita document") file type. Save under that filetype.
  • Exporting: Once you're done with a drawing and want it in a format you can upload, make sure you Export instead of Save (you don't want to lose all your layer information right?). The usual file type to use is JPEG image.
  • Note: for some reason, my Windows build of Krita gives a weird output when I try to save as .jpg. I seem to be the only one affected though, and the Linux build works fine. If you have the same problem, save as a PNG image and convert it elsewhere if needed.
  • Exporting to other programs: Many of us who use Open source programs also use other programs like Gimp or MyPaint. If you want to open your file with other programs, save your files as .ora ("OpenRaster archiving image"). Unfortunately there doesn't seem to be an easy way to share with Inkscape though. Bummer.

This concludes this tutorial. Don't forget to drop by the Krita forums to thank the developers and post your results in the Krita forum galleries. Face-smile.png

The Windows version is quite new so there are still some bugs being worked on, but it didn't prevent me from completing drawings with it. Still, when you come across bugs, help the developers by submitting a bug report. That's it!

Links

To download Krita:

Windows: In the Krita download page, locate the link to "Download Krita 2.5" (or the latest version). The Windows version is still new and experimental, but it worked pretty well for me when I tried it.

Linux (Ubuntu): You can install Krita 2.4 from the package manager, but if you want to get the latest 2.5 version, you'll have to add a ppa:

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:kubuntu-ppa/backports
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install krita

More brushes!

Brush tutorials:

Others:


This page was last modified on 11 January 2015, at 12:39. Content is available under Creative Commons License SA 4.0 unless otherwise noted.