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Tutorial de Krita - Parte II

¡Bienvenidos a la segunda parte de mi tutorial! En este episodio quizás un poco más aburrido (¡pero aún así útil!) cubriremos:

  • Consejos y trucos sobre la gestión de capas
  • Consejos y trucos sobre la edición general de imágenes

Consejos:

  • A no ser que siempre hagas todo en una única capa, recuerda siempre crear una nueva capa transparente a la hora de dibujar, en lugar de utilizar la capa de fondo (a no ser que estés dibujando el fondo). Siempre olvido esto, y no he encontrado una solución alternativa todavía...
  • Mejor todavía, acostúmbrate a trabajar usando grupos de capas.

Gestión de capas

En Krita existen varias maneras de gestionar las capas y su visibilidad. Abordaré alguna de ellas en más detalle.

Consejos a recordar:

  • Rellenar una capa con un color: Retroceso (color de fondo) o Mayús + Retroceso (color del primer plano).
  • Borrar el contenido de una capa: Borrar. Usa esto en lugar de Retroceso para limpiar una capa transparente.

Heredar Alfa (alfa = transpariencia)

Suponte que quieres dibujar algunas ropas. Tienes una capa que servirá de base, y quieres añadir:

  • una capa para las sombras
  • una capa para realzar
  • una capa para patrones
  • al final una capa para texturas

Quieres que todas estén limitados al area del dibujo de la ropa.

Krita-tutorial2-I.1-1.png


La herencia alfa bloquea el estado visible de una capa solamente a áreas, visibles en todas las áreas inferiores, en la misma pila. Técnicamente, esto habilita o deshabilita el alfa de las capas (como se muestra en el acoplable "Canales")


Krita-tutorial2-I.1-2.png


Note-box-icon.png
 
Nota
Las capas exteriores al grupo de capas ("Base 1" en el ejemplo) no pueden afectar a las capas individuales del grupo ("Group" en el emjemplo superior), pero pueden afectar a todo el grupo, tratando al grupo como una capa normal en el grupo.



Para activar la herencia de alfa en el grupo:

  • Botón derecho en la carpeta del grupo, selecciona Propiedades..., y deselecciona Alfa
  • O selecciona la carpeta del grupo, ve al acoplable "Canales", y deselecciona Alfa:
Krita-tutorial2-I.1-3.png
Krita-tutorial2-I.1-4.png


Lo que se debe y no se debe hacer:

Krita-tutorial2-I.1-5.png


Template:Consejo

Máscaras de capa y modo de borrado

Una capa o una máscara de transparencia de grupo básicamente indica el estado de su visibilidad:

  • Áreas de máscara negra -> Areas totalmente visibles
  • Áreas de máscara blanca -> áreas invisibels
  • Áreas de máscara grises -> Áreas transparentes
  • A diferencia del borrado verdadero, tu dibujo original está todavía ahí: puedes desactivar la máscara para que la capa o el grupo vuelva a ser totalmente visible de nuevo.
Krita-tutorial2-I.2-1.png

Consejos:

  • Puedes añadir máscaras a los grupos. Su posición en relación a las capas en el grupo no importa.
  • Puedes duplicar o clonar máscaras y moverlas a otras capas o grupos, en caso de necesitar que varias capas compartan máscara.

Creando y editando máscaras

Para editar una máscara, básicamente tienes que borrar en ella. Tienes 3 maneras de darle forma a la máscara: crear a partid de una selección, pincel en modo de borrador y los degradados.

Selección a máscara

Si tienes una selección activa, cuando hagas la máscara, la máscara automáticamente adoptará la forma de la selección.

Krita-tutorial2-I.2-a.png


Conesjo: Puedes difuminar la selección para tener una transición más suave: escoge Seleccionar-> Selección difuminada


= Pinceles en modo de borrador

Puedes cambiar al "Modo de borrador" en la mayoría de pinceles con E. Al dibujar en la máscara de nuevo con un pincel no invisible te permitirá añadir opacidad de nuevo.

Template:Aviso

Krita-tutorial2-I.2-b.png
Degradados
Krita-tutorial2-I.2-c-1.png


También puedes usar degradados en el modo de borrador. Recuerda en el modo de borrador:

  • Las áreas opacas del degradado borrarán la máscara
  • Las áreas transparentes se dejarán intactas

Puedes crear degradados personalizados también. En el ejemplo de la izquierda se usa un degradado radial con parones en la opacidad completa y opacidad parcial.

Degradados personalizados en Krita

Krita-tutorial2-I.2-c-2.png


  • Las flechas negras representan los puntos de control con los colores a la izquierda o derecha.
  • Las flechas blancas determinan la velocidad de la transición.
  • Para añadir un nuevo segmento, haz clic en un segmento, botón derecho y escoge Dividir el segmento
  • Nota: Cada segmento tiene un valor independiente a la izquierda y derecha, como muestra el ejemplo.

Esto significa que puedes fácilmente crear transiciones abruptas.

  • Si no deseas transiciones abruptas, haz clic en el botón de color, copia el valor html, abre el color en del siguiente segmento, y copia el valor en él.

Formas de degradados: (desde la opción de Herramientas)

Krita-tutorial2-I.2-c-3.png


Capas en el modo de borrador:

EL modo de borrador funciona muy parecido a las máscaras, excepto:

  • Afecta a todas las capas y grupos que hay debajo
  • El ajuste de opacidad de la barra de herramientas principal funciona como debe cuando se borra con los pinceles.
Krita-tutorial2-I.2-2.png


Básicamente, más fácil que hacer máscaras, aunque tienes que tener las capas correspondientes en sub-carpetas.

Krita-tutorial2-I.2-3.png

Pinceles de filtro, máscaras y capas

Estoy seguro que por ahora conoces que Krita tiene: pinceles de filtro, máscaras de filtro y capas de filtro.

Función Descripción Comentarios
Pincel de filtro ¡"Dibuja" filtros con un pincel! -No todo funciona como se espera...

- Bastantes ajustes por defecto comienzan con "ninguno", así que acuérdate de introducir algún valor

Máscara de filtro Aplica un filtro a una capa o grupo - ¡Edición no destructiva! Puedes habilitar o deshabilitar la máscara de filtro en cualquier momento.

- Botón derecho y selecciona Propiedades para ajustar las propiedades del filtro

Capa de filtro Aplica un filtro a todas las capas que están por debajo - Puedes modificar toda tu imagen con un filtro sin tener que achatarlas primero

- Puedes borrar partes de la capa de filtro


Consejos:

  • Switch off the visibility of filter masks or filter layers when you're drawing on affected layers, or the whole thing becomes really slow, since everything is updated dynamically.
  • Can be edited like Masks/Erase layers: see section on masks.
  • Also great for group or image-level adjustments like Brightness/Contrast or Hue without having to flatten the image.
Krita-tutorial2-I.3.png

Selecciones locales

Local selections basically allow you to "save" a selection to a layer. With a local selection "on":

  • When you select that layer, the local selection will be activated.
  • When you switch to another layer, the local selection will turn off.
  • You can also switch the local selection off manually, or have several local selections per layer.
Krita-tutorial2-I.4.png


In this example, after creating the first local selection, I then inverted it and created a second one. As you see, this allowed me to divide my (transparency-locked) base clothes layer into two, so I can color them independently.

Warning.png
 
Warning
When you create the local selection from a selection, there are two selections active at the same time:
  • The original one, which will Not disappear when you switch to another layer
  • And the new local selection, tied to that layer.

This will lead to some confusion when you want to switch the selections off. To switch them both off:

  • Switch the original active selection off with Shift + Ctrl + A
  • Toggle off the local selection by switching to another layer, or by toggling local selection off in the layer docker


Tip: As with layers and masks, you can duplicate a local selection and drag it to another layer.

Capas de clonado

Krita can make either duplicate or clones of layers.

  • Duplicates are basically independent copies. Nothing special there.
  • Clones, however, are linked to the original:
    • They cannot be painted on independently
    • But they will update automatically as the original is changed
    • You can also change the blending mode (Normal, Multiply, Overlay, etc.)
Krita-tutorial2-I.5-1.png

Tip: You can clone groups! The output is a single, dynamically-updated layer!

Krita-tutorial2-I.5-2.png

What is this for? Well:

  • Re-using elements: You can move clones. When making comic or animation frames, you can more easily re-use elements.
  • Organizing: You could organize say... greyscale layers in another folder, and use clones in sub-groups. So, to view only the greyscale, you can turn the greyscale folder visible. (selective viewing can also be achieved with the composition docker)
  • Play with blending modes: for some reason or other, you may want to make an exact copy of your layer just to see how a clone with a different composite mode changes your image. A common-ish usage would be to clone comic frames or lineart to place at the top.

How to use all these features

Still awake? I'm going to give you an overview of features seen so far, but before that I'll address a limitation of just using alpha-locking (transparency-locking).

Filling in a flat area, locking the transparency and just shading on it will satisfy most people's requirements. There is one problem though: edge cases.

Krita-tutorial2-I.6-1.png


This is actually quite problematic if you're smudging near the edges to blend some colors.

Both alpha-inheritance and masks allow you to overcome this issue, because additional portions are just hidden, Krita still uses the hidden parts for calculating smudging and such.

So anyway, overview:

Feature (Recommended) uses Comments/Limitations
Visibility Toggles layer visibility (obvious features available for all layers and groups)
Layer-locking Prevents you from drawing on layer accidentally (obvious features available for all layers and groups)
Alpha-locking You can only draw on areas already opaque Issues when smudging edges
Alpha-inheritance "Anti-spillover" for shading and texturing layers Can't affect layers in sub-groups individually, but you can alpha-lock a group
Masks Transparency fade effects Transparency can only be tweaked by "erasing" for now. Opacity for erase brushes must be tweaked from the brush editing panel, not the top toolbar
Erase-mode layers Like masks, but on a layer Easier to use than masks, and opacity for erase brushes can be tweaked from top toolbar. Affects all layers beneath it, so caution!
Filter brush/mask/layer Apply filters through a brush/Mask/Layer Filter masks or layers allow non-destructive and/or partial aplication of filters. Turn off visibility when drawing to avoid slow-down.
Local selections Save selections to a layer Helps you further divide a layer into zones
Duplicate layers Copy of a layer, group or mask Good for some composite effects
Clone layers Linked layer that updates when the original is updated Cannot be edited independently save for moving. Allows easy re-use of elements. Cloning a group produces a single, easy to manage and dynamically-updated layer.
Vector layers* Comic frames (See Anitim's Krita Comic tutorial on Youtube) Vectors are editable shapes, which makes them handy for comic frames. Vector drawing is a whole genre, though Krita isn't specialized in vectors, so I won't cover it here...

The above are just some usage suggestions. I figured most of them from scratch, so I don't know how other people use them.

Additional tips:

  • Greyscale layers: If you're the type of person who likes to separate greyscale and coloring layers, then you can change a layer into pure greyscale layer with Layer -> Convert Layer Type... (from the main menu) and changing it to grayscale
Krita-tutorial2-I.6-2.png


You will now automatically draw in greyscale on this layer, even if you use a color brush. Other layers remain color layers.

  • Use Layer in the main menu for other, rather self-explanatory layer functions:
    • Save Layer as Image (works for groups)
    • Merge with Layer Below: also available from right-clicking images. Be careful if they're using different blending modes.
    • Flatten Layer
    • Mirror / Shear / Scale / Rotate
    • Layer Effects

That's it for layers, layers management and layer properties. (ugh)

Image properties and editing

Alternate name: "This is where you learn to transform and tweak stuff." A lot here happens to be basic stuff available to most image editing programs, but then again people have to start somewhere to learn the basics...

Basics

Basic stuff, that everybody should know.

  • Canvas resize: Drew a torso, filling the whole canvas, and then you realized whoops? You wanted to draw the rest of the body as well? That's what Image -> Size Canvas... from the top menu is for. You can always crop later (crop tool to the left bar).
  • Krita will also implement an "infinite canvas" mode soon, and I'm really looking forward to it!
  • Press M to mirror the image.
  • Using the move tool on a group moves all the layers in it at the same time.
  • Ctrl + drag with the move tool will constrain to horizontal or vertical moves.


Colors and color adjustment operations:

  • Greyscale to RGB: Scanned your image in greyscale, but now you want to color it? Image -> Convert Image Type -> Model: Red Green Blue.
  • Adjust brightness/contrast: Filter -> Adjust -> Levels... or Filter -> Adjust -> Brightness/Contrast curve...
  • Adjust colors: Filter -> Adjust -> HSV Adjustment.... Since I'm bad with colors, I use this all the time to fix my colors. D:

Tips:

  • Since I use them often, I've assigned shortcuts to Brightness/Contrast curve (Shift + C) and HSV adjustment (Shift + H). You can too from Settings -> Configure Shortcuts....
  • Cleaning up your lineart: way too many people upload their mushy grey-looking lineart scans. Making it black and white is easy:
    • Open up Filter -> Adjust -> Brightness/Contrast curve...
    • The Vertical lines specify the amounts of different grey values. Basically most greys should be white, and the other end should be converted to black.
    • So just do this:
Krita-tutorial2-II.1.png


And so you get a usable lineart! Set it to the top of the layers on "multiple" mode. Deevad also has a tutorial that covers lineart preparation (among others).

Selections

You can access 8 selection tools from the toolbar:

Krita-tutorial2-II.2-1.png


Tip: Drawing with path selection:

  • Turn off "snapping" in the tool options. "Snapping" will cause the mouse to behave in a certain way, like jumping to a guide or snapping to angles. If you actually want this behaviour, great! If you don't, turn it off.
  • Types of lines:
Krita-tutorial2-II.2-2.png

Actions for selections:

  • To deselect, click Shift + Ctrl + A. With the rectangle or elliptical selection tools, clicking on the selection again will also deselect it.
  • By default, creating a new selection replaces the existing ones. However, if you want to work more on a selection, you can make use of selection modes in tool options:
Krita-tutorial2-II.2-3.png

From left to right:

  • Replace (the normal mode): replaces previous selections
  • Intersect: only the intersection of the previous and current selections will remain active
  • Add: add to the previous selection
  • Subtract: remove from the previous selection


Other options from top menu Select includes:

  • Invert Selection inverts the selection.
  • Feather Selection... : This will make the borders of the selection more "fuzzy", i.e. smooth transition until no-selection (like a mask's grey areas).
  • Grow/Shrink Selection...: exactly what it says.
  • Border Selection...: creates a border from the selection. If you want to make a frame for example, you can make a rectangular selection, then make a border with it.
  • Select Opaque: all visible areas are selected.


Various uses:

  • Convert selection to mask: create a "transparency mask" with a selection active
  • Convert selection to filter mask: create "filter mask" with a selection active
  • Convert selection to local selection: create a "local selection" with a selection active
  • Mask to selection: Select -> Mask To Selection from the top menu.

And of course, you want to make proper selections before transformations.

Transformation tool and deform brush

Krita's transformation tool has 2 modes: a normal-ish one, and a weird deform one called "warp" (good for deforming textures?).

Transformation tool: Free Transform Mode

Krita-tutorial2-II.3-1.png


The mouse icon changes when you hover near the points. Unfortunately the screenshot doesn't show this, but you can try for yourself.

Krita-tutorial2-II.3-2.png


  • To confirm the transformation, press Enter or choose apply from tool options.
  • From tool options, you can also input values manually.

For the most part, this works fantastic! Unfortunately the perspective function seems more like it's from a 3D program than a 2D program: it rotates the entire plane around the cross.

I admit I would have preferred a perspective interface that works more like Krita's perspective guides (i.e., you drag the corners individually), which is also how it works in Gimp. In the worst case, you could try switching to Gimp for perspective transform then switching back.

Transformation tool: Warp Mode

Krita-tutorial2-II.3-3.png


Warp mode is this strange mode where you deform the drawing by dragging on control points.

Although I haven't tried it yet, you could try it for deforming fabric texture, for example.

Krita-tutorial2-II.3-4.png


You can also place control points yourself with custom:

  • Toggle between adding points and warping with the (Un)lock Points button
  • With points unlocked, you can place new points (shown here in red)
  • With points locked, dragging on them will deform the drawing

Deform brush

Finally, you can deform things with the deform brush (find it where all the other brushes are). ! I'm not sure why the default is Swirl CW, but there are actually 8 modes. Access them from Color -> Deform Options in the brush editing panel.

Krita-tutorial2-II.3-5.png


Here I also turned on the Airbrush mode, which makes the brush keep working as long as the mouse button is pressed down (instead of having to move the brush).


This concludes this episode of this tutorial. As you may have realized, Krita allows you to achieve a same result with many different ways. It's up to you to choose which one you are most comfortable with.

Thie episode covers just about everything except the truly fun part of Krita (drawing), so just memorize it once and you're set. Face-smile.png

Links:

  • The original version of this tutorial on daviantART.

Other tutorials mentioned here:


This page was last modified on 12 May 2013, at 10:31. Content is available under Creative Commons License SA 4.0 unless otherwise noted.