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<languages />
 
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{|class="vertical-centered"
 
{|class="vertical-centered"
|[[Image:KWin-desktop1fa.png|thumb|center|256px|Пустой рабочий стол в KDE 4.5]]||'''Надежный и гибкий диспетчер окон для рабочего стола KDE SC, теперь с видеоэффектами!'''
+
|[[Image:KWin-desktop1fa.png|thumb|center|256px|Пустой рабочий стол в KDE SC 4.5]]||'''Надежный и гибкий диспетчер окон для рабочего стола KDE, теперь с видеоэффектами!'''
 
|}
 
|}
 
<span id="Feature Overview"></span>
 
<span id="Feature Overview"></span>
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:* Улучшенная эффективность
 
:* Улучшенная эффективность
  
'''KWin''' (произносится как "квин") — это диспетчер окон для рабочего стола KDE. Он даёт полный контроль над окнами, таким образом, чтобы помочь в решении ваших задач. Он отвечает за оформления окон, заголовок окна с (настраиваемыми) кнопками, такими как «закрыть», «распахнуть», «свернуть». Он также отвечает за размещение окон на рабочем столе и переключение между ними.
+
'''KWin''' (pronounced "kwin" in one word) is the window manager for the '''KDE Plasma Desktop'''. It gives you complete control over your windows, making sure they're not in the way but aid you in your task. It paints the window decoration, the bar on top of every window with (configurable) buttons like close, maximize and minimize. It also handles placing of windows and switching between them.
  
 
'''KWin''' поддерживает '''композитность''', что означает использование трёхмерных эффектов при отрисовке окон. Это может сделать управление окнами более гладким, лёгким и более эффективным и естественным. Его аппаратные требования очень скромные, и почти каждая разумно современная система с 2002 года поддерживает его. Могут быть небольшие проблемы с некоторой аппаратурой, более подробно на эту тему можно узнать на странице KWin в [http://techbase.kde.org/Projects/KWin TechBase].
 
'''KWin''' поддерживает '''композитность''', что означает использование трёхмерных эффектов при отрисовке окон. Это может сделать управление окнами более гладким, лёгким и более эффективным и естественным. Его аппаратные требования очень скромные, и почти каждая разумно современная система с 2002 года поддерживает его. Могут быть небольшие проблемы с некоторой аппаратурой, более подробно на эту тему можно узнать на странице KWin в [http://techbase.kde.org/Projects/KWin TechBase].
Line 19: Line 19:
 
Click with your right mouse button on a window decoration or use [[Special:myLanguage/System Settings|System Settings]] to access the new and easier configuration of '''KWin'''. Here you can enable effects to more efficiently manage your windows. You can for example use the '''Present Windows''' as the effect for window switching. Instead of showing you icons or very small previews of your applications, it arranges them in a grid so you can quickly choose the right one. Just use the <keycap>Alt-Tab</keycap> keysequence and keep the <keycap>Alt</keycap> key pressed. You can now use tab to switch through the windows or just activate the right one using the mouse. Hitting <keycap>Alt-Tab</keycap> keys quickly will show you the next window in the queue, just like it used to.
 
Click with your right mouse button on a window decoration or use [[Special:myLanguage/System Settings|System Settings]] to access the new and easier configuration of '''KWin'''. Here you can enable effects to more efficiently manage your windows. You can for example use the '''Present Windows''' as the effect for window switching. Instead of showing you icons or very small previews of your applications, it arranges them in a grid so you can quickly choose the right one. Just use the <keycap>Alt-Tab</keycap> keysequence and keep the <keycap>Alt</keycap> key pressed. You can now use tab to switch through the windows or just activate the right one using the mouse. Hitting <keycap>Alt-Tab</keycap> keys quickly will show you the next window in the queue, just like it used to.
  
If your X server already supports compositing, switching it on is as easy as opening System Settings, opening the <menuchoice>Desktop</menuchoice> module, choosing <menuchoice>Desktop Effects</menuchoice> and enabling the checkbox <menuchoice>Enable desktop effects</menuchoice>. More advanced compositing settings (such as ''VSync operation'', ''Direct rendering'', ''compositing mode'') are available through the <menuchoice>Advanced</menuchoice> dialog. Customising the behaviour of the KWin effects means opening the <menuchoice>All effects</menuchoice> tab, and choosing the plugins you want to use. Please note that only a subset of the plugins works with ''XRender''-based compositing. For the full experience, you need to use OpenGL mode.  
+
If your X server already supports compositing, switching it on is as easy as opening System Settings, opening the <menuchoice>Worskpace Appearance and Behaviour</menuchoice> module, choosing <menuchoice>Desktop Effects</menuchoice> and enabling the checkbox <menuchoice>Enable desktop effects at startup</menuchoice>. More advanced compositing settings (such as ''Use VSync'', ''Scale method'', ''Compositing type'') are available through the <menuchoice>Advanced</menuchoice> dialog. Customising the behaviour of the KWin effects means opening the <menuchoice>All effects</menuchoice> tab, and choosing the plugins you want to use. Please note that only a subset of the plugins works with ''XRender''-based compositing. For the full experience, you need to use OpenGL mode.  
  
 
Employing motion physics, '''KWin''' provides your windows with a more natural feel. New desktop effects like the '''Cube''' desktop switcher and '''Magic Lamp''' minimize animation have been added. Improvements in the existing effects make window management smoother than ever. KWin has seen many performance improvements to enable these effects even on low-end hardware. Elaborate checks have been build in to ensure users with low-end hardware are not presented with an unusable setup. KWin detects the capabilities of the hardware and if needed gracefully scales its effects down. You can take control and disable these checks or change settings like the global animation speed to fine-tune your experience. When your computer is under heavy load, '''KWin''' will automatically disable the compositing temporarily to keep things running smoothly. It will notify you if it does so, and you can re-enable compositing by pressing <keycap>Shift+Alt+F12</keycap>. Finally, support for multiple screen handling has been improved in '''KWin''' using the new '''Kephal''' library. You can move maximized windows between '''Xinerama''' screens and the addition of external screens is handled correctly.
 
Employing motion physics, '''KWin''' provides your windows with a more natural feel. New desktop effects like the '''Cube''' desktop switcher and '''Magic Lamp''' minimize animation have been added. Improvements in the existing effects make window management smoother than ever. KWin has seen many performance improvements to enable these effects even on low-end hardware. Elaborate checks have been build in to ensure users with low-end hardware are not presented with an unusable setup. KWin detects the capabilities of the hardware and if needed gracefully scales its effects down. You can take control and disable these checks or change settings like the global animation speed to fine-tune your experience. When your computer is under heavy load, '''KWin''' will automatically disable the compositing temporarily to keep things running smoothly. It will notify you if it does so, and you can re-enable compositing by pressing <keycap>Shift+Alt+F12</keycap>. Finally, support for multiple screen handling has been improved in '''KWin''' using the new '''Kephal''' library. You can move maximized windows between '''Xinerama''' screens and the addition of external screens is handled correctly.
  
More information about what was introduced in KDE SC 4.2 can be found at the following link:
+
More information about what was introduced in KDE SC 4.9 can be found at the following link:
  
* [http://nowwhatthe.blogspot.com/2008/12/kwin-screencast.html kwin movie]
+
* [http://blog.martin-graesslin.com/blog/2012/09/performance-improvements-in-kwin-4-9-2-and-4-10 kwin improvements]
  
 
== Tutorials ==
 
== Tutorials ==
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===You want an application to launch in a specific size and position every time===
 
===You want an application to launch in a specific size and position every time===
  
[[Image:KWin_Settings_Geometry.png|thumb|400px|center|Geometry Tab]]
+
[[Image:KWin_Settings_Geometry.png|thumb|400px|center|Size and Position]]
  
 
Sometimes the screen position of an application is vital to your comfort, so use the flexibility of '''KWin''' to make sure it's always where you want it.
 
Sometimes the screen position of an application is vital to your comfort, so use the flexibility of '''KWin''' to make sure it's always where you want it.
  
Position the window where you want it to open, then right-click on the title-bar, choosing <menuchoice>Advanced -> Special Window Settings</menuchoice>.  This will open a settings window, with appropriate entries already made.  All you need to do now is select the <menuchoice>Geometry</menuchoice> tab and check <menuchoice>Position</menuchoice> and <menuchoice>Size</menuchoice>.  OK - you're finished!
+
Position the window where you want it to open, then right-click on the title-bar, choosing <menuchoice>Advanced -> Special Window Settings</menuchoice>.  This will open a settings window, with appropriate entries already made.  All you need to do now is select the <menuchoice>Size & Position</menuchoice> tab and check <menuchoice>Position</menuchoice> and <menuchoice>Size</menuchoice>.  OK - you are finished!
  
 
===Script the window manager from the command line===
 
===Script the window manager from the command line===
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Use the [http://www.kde-apps.org/content/show.php/WMIface?content=40425 '''WMIface'''] utility.
 
Use the [http://www.kde-apps.org/content/show.php/WMIface?content=40425 '''WMIface'''] utility.
  
===Customise the position of titlebar buttons===
+
=== Настройка расположения кнопок заголовка окна ===
  
 
[[Image:KWin_Configure_Buttons.png|thumb|400px|center|Configure Buttons]]
 
[[Image:KWin_Configure_Buttons.png|thumb|400px|center|Configure Buttons]]
  
Take a look at <menuchoice>System Settings -> Appearance -> Windows -> Buttons</menuchoice> tab - and enable <menuchoice>Use custom titlebar button positions</menuchoice>. The options open to you may depend on your distribution or theme, and it's clear that there is more to come.
+
Take a look at <menuchoice>System Settings -> Application Style -> Window Decorations -> Buttons</menuchoice> tab. The options open to you may depend on your distribution or theme, and it's clear that there is more to come.
  
Perhaps you would like more space between the <menuchoice>Close</menuchoice> button and the <menuchoice>Minimise/Maximise</menuchoice> pair?  So you will want to add a <menuchoice>spacer</menuchoice> - two if you wish.
 
  
To simply move things around you work with the speciman titlebar - that is the dark blue bar with a large KDE on it.  Drag icons there and you will see them move in the preview window at the bottom of the screen.
+
To simply move things around you work with the specimen titlebar.  Drag icons there to where you want to see them.
  
 
You may find that you have other icons available to you.  A circle indicates that the button will set that window on all desktops.  Another icon that you may find useful is Shade - a toggle between rolled up (titlebar only visible) and normal view.  These icons are added by dragging from the text description window onto the speciman title bar - just position them as you want to use them.
 
You may find that you have other icons available to you.  A circle indicates that the button will set that window on all desktops.  Another icon that you may find useful is Shade - a toggle between rolled up (titlebar only visible) and normal view.  These icons are added by dragging from the text description window onto the speciman title bar - just position them as you want to use them.
  
===If you prefer a Classic, KDE3-style Desktop===
+
=== Если вы предпочитаете классический рабочий стол в стиле KDE3 ===
  
 
{|
 
{|
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|}
 
|}
  
Right-click on your desktop - select <menuchoice>Desktop Settings</menuchoice> (or <menuchoice>Appearance Settings</menuchoice>, in some distros).  Change the <menuchoice>Type:</menuchoice> from <menuchoice>Desktop</menuchoice> to <menuchoice>Folder View</menuchoice>.  The whole desktop is now a folderview, and another right-click on the desktop will allow you to select <menuchoice>FolderView Settings</menuchoice>.  Set the folderview to the directory you want to use as your desktop.
+
Right-click on your desktop - select <menuchoice>Desktop Settings</menuchoice> (or <menuchoice>Appearance Settings</menuchoice>, in some distros).  Change the <menuchoice>Layout:</menuchoice> from <menuchoice>Desktop</menuchoice> to <menuchoice>Folder View</menuchoice>.  The whole desktop is now a folderview, and another right-click on the desktop will allow you to select <menuchoice>FolderView Settings</menuchoice>.  Set the folderview to the directory you want to use as your desktop.
  
===A video of KWin features===
+
=== Запуск приложения сразу на другом рабочем столе ===
  
A demonstration of features is '''[http://blip.tv/file/1649485 here]'''
+
Используйте команду наподобие этой:  
  
===Open applications directly into a different desktop===
+
{{Input|1=kstart5 --desktop 4 kate}}
 
 
Use commands like
 
 
 
{{Input|1=kstart --desktop 4 kate}}
 
 
<span id="Using with small screens (eg Netbooks)"></span>
 
<span id="Using with small screens (eg Netbooks)"></span>
==Using with small screens (eg Netbooks)==
+
== Работа с маленькими экранами (например нетбуки) ==
  
===Make the window decorations smaller===
+
=== Сделайте оформление окна поменьше ===
  
[[Image:KWin_Small_Decorations.png|thumb|400px|center|Oxygen and Laptop Styles]]
+
[[Image:KWin_Small_Decorations.png|thumb|400px|center|Breeze, Plastik, and Oxygen Styles]]
  
<menuchoice>System Settings -> Appearance -> Windows -> Window Decoration</menuchoice> tab. Two good options there:
+
<menuchoice>System Settings -> Application Style -> Window Decorations</menuchoice> tab. Two good options there:
  
[[Image:KWin_Oxygen_Small.png|thumb|300px|center|Configure Oxygen Style]]
+
[[Image:KWin_Breeze_Small.png|thumb|300px|center|Configure Breeze Style]]
  
* Using the default style (Oxygen), select <menuchoice>Configure Decoration</menuchoice> and set <menuchoice>Button Size</menuchoice> to <menuchoice>Small</menuchoice> and <menuchoice>Border Size</menuchoice> to <menuchoice>Tiny</menuchoice>
+
* Using the default style (Breeze), select <menuchoice>Configure Decoration</menuchoice> and set <menuchoice>Button size</menuchoice> to <menuchoice>Tiny</menuchoice> or <menuchoice>Small</menuchoice>.
* Select the <menuchoice>Laptop</menuchoice>
+
* Using an other style, with smaller windows decorations.
  
 
Both routes will give you slim and functional window titles and borders.
 
Both routes will give you slim and functional window titles and borders.
  
===Change the base fonts===
+
=== Измените базовые шрифты ===
  
On many netbooks the screen is very clear, so that reading fonts much smaller than you expect is feasible.  On my Acer Aspire One I find that 8 point is a good base settings.
+
On many netbooks the screen is very clear, so that reading fonts much smaller than you expect is feasible.  On Acer Aspire One I find that 8 point is a good base settings.
  
===Make '''Firefox''' use smaller fonts===
+
=== Сделайте чтобы '''Firefox''' использовал шрифты меньшего размера ===
  
 
Experimentation with <menuchoice>about:config</menuchoice> did not bring satisfactory results.  Do this instead.  Download and install '''gtk-chtheme''' from [http://plasmasturm.org/code/gtk-chtheme/ this website].  Using that tool you can either set a specific font size, or better still, tell it to use your KDE desktop settings.  This will work with '''Firefox''' as well as any gtk applications that you use.
 
Experimentation with <menuchoice>about:config</menuchoice> did not bring satisfactory results.  Do this instead.  Download and install '''gtk-chtheme''' from [http://plasmasturm.org/code/gtk-chtheme/ this website].  Using that tool you can either set a specific font size, or better still, tell it to use your KDE desktop settings.  This will work with '''Firefox''' as well as any gtk applications that you use.
  
===KMail's Aggregation options take up too much space===
+
=== Заголовки писем в KMail занимают слишком много места ===
  
See [[Special:myLanguage/KMail/FAQs_Hints_and_Tips#Get_more_screen_space_in_KMail|this FAQ]] to change it.
+
Смотрите [[Special:myLanguage/KMail/FAQs_Hints_and_Tips#Get_more_screen_space_in_KMail|этот FAQ]], чтобы исправить это.
  
===KMail's Folder-List Tooltips hide too many folder names===
+
=== Всплывающие подсказки в списке папок KMail слишком велики и скрывают имена папок ===
  
See [[Special:myLanguage/KMail/FAQs_Hints_and_Tips#Un-configure_KMail_folder_tool_tips|this FAQ]] to change their behaviour
+
Смотрите [[Special:myLanguage/KMail/FAQs_Hints_and_Tips#Un-configure_KMail_folder_tool_tips|этот FAQ]], чтобы изменить их поведение.
  
 
===Gallery===
 
===Gallery===
 
[[Special:myLanguage/KWin/Gallery|The Gallery]] holds many screenshots of past and present desktops and effects.
 
[[Special:myLanguage/KWin/Gallery|The Gallery]] holds many screenshots of past and present desktops and effects.
  
[[Category:Desktop]]
+
=== Troubleshoot Graphics Problems ===
 +
 
 +
Curing graphics problems depends on knowing the correct drivers for your graphics card.  Learn more about this on the [[Special:myLanguage/Desktop_Effects_Performance|Desktop Effects Performance]] page.
 +
 
 +
=== Defining Window Rules ===
 +
 
 +
There is a tutorial on defining your own rules for the behaviour of specific windows on the [[Special:myLanguage/KWin Rules|KWin Rules]] pages.
 +
 
 +
== More Information ==
 +
 
 +
* [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/KWin Wikipedia]
 +
* [https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Window_manager Window manager] (Arch Linux Wiki)
 +
* [[Special:myLanguage/Tutorials/Using Other Window Managers with Plasma|Using Other Window Managers with Plasma]]
 +
 
 +
[[Category:Рабочий стол/ru]]

Latest revision as of 08:00, 5 July 2019

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Пустой рабочий стол в KDE SC 4.5
Надежный и гибкий диспетчер окон для рабочего стола KDE, теперь с видеоэффектами!

Обзор возможностей

  • Стабильный и надежный
  • Композитный, с трёхмерными эффектами
  • Простота настройки
  • Улучшенная эффективность

KWin (pronounced "kwin" in one word) is the window manager for the KDE Plasma Desktop. It gives you complete control over your windows, making sure they're not in the way but aid you in your task. It paints the window decoration, the bar on top of every window with (configurable) buttons like close, maximize and minimize. It also handles placing of windows and switching between them.

KWin поддерживает композитность, что означает использование трёхмерных эффектов при отрисовке окон. Это может сделать управление окнами более гладким, лёгким и более эффективным и естественным. Его аппаратные требования очень скромные, и почти каждая разумно современная система с 2002 года поддерживает его. Могут быть небольшие проблемы с некоторой аппаратурой, более подробно на эту тему можно узнать на странице KWin в TechBase.

Удобные возможности

Click with your right mouse button on a window decoration or use System Settings to access the new and easier configuration of KWin. Here you can enable effects to more efficiently manage your windows. You can for example use the Present Windows as the effect for window switching. Instead of showing you icons or very small previews of your applications, it arranges them in a grid so you can quickly choose the right one. Just use the Alt-Tab keysequence and keep the Alt key pressed. You can now use tab to switch through the windows or just activate the right one using the mouse. Hitting Alt-Tab keys quickly will show you the next window in the queue, just like it used to.

If your X server already supports compositing, switching it on is as easy as opening System Settings, opening the Worskpace Appearance and Behaviour module, choosing Desktop Effects and enabling the checkbox Enable desktop effects at startup. More advanced compositing settings (such as Use VSync, Scale method, Compositing type) are available through the Advanced dialog. Customising the behaviour of the KWin effects means opening the All effects tab, and choosing the plugins you want to use. Please note that only a subset of the plugins works with XRender-based compositing. For the full experience, you need to use OpenGL mode.

Employing motion physics, KWin provides your windows with a more natural feel. New desktop effects like the Cube desktop switcher and Magic Lamp minimize animation have been added. Improvements in the existing effects make window management smoother than ever. KWin has seen many performance improvements to enable these effects even on low-end hardware. Elaborate checks have been build in to ensure users with low-end hardware are not presented with an unusable setup. KWin detects the capabilities of the hardware and if needed gracefully scales its effects down. You can take control and disable these checks or change settings like the global animation speed to fine-tune your experience. When your computer is under heavy load, KWin will automatically disable the compositing temporarily to keep things running smoothly. It will notify you if it does so, and you can re-enable compositing by pressing Shift+Alt+F12. Finally, support for multiple screen handling has been improved in KWin using the new Kephal library. You can move maximized windows between Xinerama screens and the addition of external screens is handled correctly.

More information about what was introduced in KDE SC 4.9 can be found at the following link:

Tutorials

You want an application to launch in a specific size and position every time

Size and Position

Sometimes the screen position of an application is vital to your comfort, so use the flexibility of KWin to make sure it's always where you want it.

Position the window where you want it to open, then right-click on the title-bar, choosing Advanced -> Special Window Settings. This will open a settings window, with appropriate entries already made. All you need to do now is select the Size & Position tab and check Position and Size. OK - you are finished!

Script the window manager from the command line

Use the WMIface utility.

Настройка расположения кнопок заголовка окна

Configure Buttons

Take a look at System Settings -> Application Style -> Window Decorations -> Buttons tab. The options open to you may depend on your distribution or theme, and it's clear that there is more to come.


To simply move things around you work with the specimen titlebar. Drag icons there to where you want to see them.

You may find that you have other icons available to you. A circle indicates that the button will set that window on all desktops. Another icon that you may find useful is Shade - a toggle between rolled up (titlebar only visible) and normal view. These icons are added by dragging from the text description window onto the speciman title bar - just position them as you want to use them.

Если вы предпочитаете классический рабочий стол в стиле KDE3

Plasma howto-thumbnail-45.png
Change to traditional desktop

Right-click on your desktop - select Desktop Settings (or Appearance Settings, in some distros). Change the Layout: from Desktop to Folder View. The whole desktop is now a folderview, and another right-click on the desktop will allow you to select FolderView Settings. Set the folderview to the directory you want to use as your desktop.

Запуск приложения сразу на другом рабочем столе

Используйте команду наподобие этой:

kstart5 --desktop 4 kate

Работа с маленькими экранами (например нетбуки)

Сделайте оформление окна поменьше

Breeze, Plastik, and Oxygen Styles

System Settings -> Application Style -> Window Decorations tab. Two good options there:

Configure Breeze Style
  • Using the default style (Breeze), select Configure Decoration and set Button size to Tiny or Small.
  • Using an other style, with smaller windows decorations.

Both routes will give you slim and functional window titles and borders.

Измените базовые шрифты

On many netbooks the screen is very clear, so that reading fonts much smaller than you expect is feasible. On Acer Aspire One I find that 8 point is a good base settings.

Сделайте чтобы Firefox использовал шрифты меньшего размера

Experimentation with about:config did not bring satisfactory results. Do this instead. Download and install gtk-chtheme from this website. Using that tool you can either set a specific font size, or better still, tell it to use your KDE desktop settings. This will work with Firefox as well as any gtk applications that you use.

Заголовки писем в KMail занимают слишком много места

Смотрите этот FAQ, чтобы исправить это.

Всплывающие подсказки в списке папок KMail слишком велики и скрывают имена папок

Смотрите этот FAQ, чтобы изменить их поведение.

Gallery

The Gallery holds many screenshots of past and present desktops and effects.

Troubleshoot Graphics Problems

Curing graphics problems depends on knowing the correct drivers for your graphics card. Learn more about this on the Desktop Effects Performance page.

Defining Window Rules

There is a tutorial on defining your own rules for the behaviour of specific windows on the KWin Rules pages.

More Information


This page was last edited on 5 July 2019, at 08:00. Content is available under Creative Commons License SA 4.0 unless otherwise noted.