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Even though Krita is primarily a raster based application, but it also has some vector editing capabilities too. If you are new to Digital painting medium, it is necessary that you know the concepts of raster and vector.
In digital imaging, a pixel (Picture Element) is a basic and lowest element of an Image. It is basically a grid of points each displaying specific color. Raster editing is manipulating and editing these pixels. For example when you take a 1 pixel brush which is colored black and painting on the white canvas in Krita you are actually changing the color of the pixel beneath your brush from white to black.When you zoom in and see a brush stroke you can notice many small squares with colors, these are pixels
On the contrary vector graphic work based on mathematical expressions. They are independent of the pixel. For example when you draw a rectangle on a vector layer in Krita you are actually drawing paths passing through points called nodes which are located on a specific co-ordinates on 'x' 'y' axis, when you re-size or move these points the computer calculates and redraws the path and displays the newly formed shape to you. Hence you can re-size the vector shape to any extent without any loss in quality.
In Krita everything which is not on a vector layer is raster based.
In a painting program, there's three major containers that make up your work-space.
The most important one is the Image.
This is a individual copy of the image you opened or made via the file dialogue, and where you edit your file. Krita can allow you to open the file as a new copy via the file menu, or to save it as a new file, or make an incremental save. An image contains layers, a colour space, a canvas size and meta-data such as creator, data created, and DPI. Krita can open multiple images at once, you can switch between them via themenu.
Because the image is a working copy of the image on the hard drive, you can do a lot of little saving tricks with it:
These options are great for people doing production work, who need to switch between files quickly, or have backup files in case they do something extreme. Krita also has a file-backup system in the form of auto-saves and back files and crash-recovery. You can configure these in the general settings.
You view the image via a View.
A view is the window onto your image. Krita allows you to have multiple views, and you can manipulate the view to zoom, rotate and mirror and modify the colour of the way you see an image without editing the image itself. This is very useful for artists, as changing the way they view the image is a common way to diagnose mistakes, like skewing to one side. Mirroring with m makes such skewing easy to identify.
If you have trouble drawing certain curves you will enjoy using rotation for drawing, and of course there is zooming in and out for precision and rough work.
Krita allows for multiple views as well, via ctrl+tab, or keep them in the same area when subwindow mode is active in the settings, via .. You can switch between them via the menu, or
Dockers are little subwindows in Krita's interface. They contain useful tools, like the color selector.
All the views and the dockers are held inside Windows
If you've used computer before, you know what windows are: They are big containers for your computer programs.
Krita allows you to have multiple windows via. You can then drag this to another monitor, for multi-monitor use.
When you create a new document in Krita for the first time you will see a rectangular white area. This is called a canvas. You can see it in the image below, The area marked by a red rectangle is a canvas.
When you save the painting as jpg , png etc or take a print out of the painting the content inside this area is taken into consideration, anything beyond it will be ignored. However Krita stores information beyond this area, you just wont be able to see it. This data is stored in the Layers.
Like a Landscape painter will first paint the sky, and then the furthest away elements before slowly working his way to the foreground elements, computers will do the same with all the things you tell them to draw. So, if you tell them to draw a circle after a square on the same spot, the circle will always be drawn later. This is called the Drawing Order.
The layer stack is a way for you to seperate out elements of a drawing, and manipulate the drawing order, by showing you which layers are drawn when, and allowing you to change the order they are drawn in, and all sorts of other effects. This is called Compositing.
This allows you to have line art above the colours, or trees before the mountains, and edit each without affecting the other.
Krita has many layer-types, each doing a slightly different thing:
You can manipulate the content of the layers with Tools.
Tools are the way you manipulate the image data. The most common one is of course, the freehand brush, which is the default when you open Krita. There's roughly five types of tools in Krita:
All tools can be found in the toolbox, and information can be found in the tools section of the manual.
Brush Engines, like mentioned before, take a path and tablet information and add effects to it, making a stroke.
Engine is a term programmers use to describe a complex interacting set of code that is the core for a certain functionality, and is highly configurable. In short, like the engine of your car drives your car, and the type of engine and it's configuration affects how you use your car, the brush engine drives the look and feel of the brush, and different brush engines have different results.
Krita has around 15 brush engines, all with different effects.
For example, the pixel-brush engine is simple and allows you to do most of your basic work, but if you do a lot of painting, the color smudge brush engine might be more useful. Even though it's slower to use than the Pixel Brush engine, it's mising of colors allows you to work faster.
If you want something totally different than that, the sketch brush engine helps with making messy lines, and the shape brush engine allows you to make big flats quickly. There's a lot of cool effects inside Krita's brush engines, so try them all out, and be sure to check the chapters on each.
You can configure these effects via the Brush Settings drop-down, which can be quickly accessed via f5. These configurations can then be saved into presets, which you can quickly access with f6 or the Brush Presets docker.
Brushes draw with colors, but how do computers understand colors?