Difference between revisions of "Krita/Manual/Blendingmodes"

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These are the blending modes that have been ticked as favorites, defaulting these are:
 
These are the blending modes that have been ticked as favorites, defaulting these are:
  
*Addition
+
*[[Special:myLanguage/Krita/Manual/Blendingmodes#Addition|Addition]]
*Burn
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*[[Special:myLanguage/Krita/Manual/Blendingmodes#Burn|Color Burn]]
*Color
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*[[Special:myLanguage/Krita/Manual/Blendingmodes#Color.2C_HSV.2C_HSI.2C_HSL.2C_HSY|Color]]
*Color Dodge
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* [[Special:myLanguage/Krita/Manual/Blendingmodes#Color_Dodge|Color Dodge]]
*Darken
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*[[#Darken|Darken]]
*Erase
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*[[#Erase|Erase]]
*Lighten
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*[[#Lighten|Lighten]]
*Luminosity
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*[[#Luminosity|Luminosity]]
*Multiply
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*[[#Multiply|Multiply]]
 
*Normal
 
*Normal
 
*Overlay
 
*Overlay

Revision as of 14:18, 22 June 2014

Blending Modes

Blending modes are a little difficult to explain. Basically, when one layer is above the other, the computer uses a bit of programming to decide how the combination of both layers will look.

Blending modes can not just apply to Layers, but also to individual strokes.

Favorites

These are the blending modes that have been ticked as favorites, defaulting these are:

Arithmetic

These blending modes are based on simple maths.

Addition

Adds the numerical values of two colours together:

Yellow(1,1,0)+Blue(0,0,1)=White(1,1,1)

Red(1,0,0)+Grey(0.5,0.5,0.5)=Pink(1,0.5,0.5)

Divide

Divides the numerical value from the lower color by the upper color.


Inverse Subtract

This inverts the lower layer before subtracting it from the upper layer.

Multiply

Multiplies the two colors with each other, but does not go beyond the upper limit.

This is often used to color in a black and white lineart. One puts the black and white lineart on top, and sets the layer to 'Multiply', and then draw in color on a layer beneath. Multiply will all the colour to go through.

White(1,1,1)xWhite(1,1,1)=White(1,1,1) White(1,1,1)xGrey(0.5,0.5,0.5)=Grey(0.5,0.5,0.5) Grey(0.5,0.5,0.5)xGrey(0.5,0.5,0.5)=Dark grey(0.25,0.25,0.25)

Subtract

Subtracts the top layer from the bottom layer.


EX:

White(1,1,1)-White(1,1,1)=Black(0,0,0)

White(1,1,1)-Grey(0.5,0.5,0.5)=Grey(0.5,0.5,0.5)

Grey(0.5,0.5,0.5)-Grey(0.5,0.5,0.5)=Black(0,0,0)

Darken

Burn

A variation on Divide, sometimes called 'Color Burn' in some programs.

This inverts the bottom layer, then divides it by the top layer, and inverts the result. This results in a darkened effect that takes the colors of the lower layer into account, similar to the burn technique used in traditional darkroom photography.

Darken

With the darken, the upper layer's colors are checked for their lightness. Only if they are darker than the underlying color on the lower layer, will they be visible.

Gamma Dark

Divides 1 by the lower layer, and calculates the end result using that as the power of the upper layer.

Linear Burn

Similar to Addition.

Adds the values of the two layers together and then inverts them.

HSX

Krita has four different HSX coordinate systems. The difference between them is how they handle tone.

HSI

HSI is a color coordinate system, using Hue, Saturation and Intensity to catagorise a color. Hue is roughly the wavelength, whether the colour is red, yellow, green, cyan, blue or purple. It is measure in 360°, with 0 being red. Saturation is the measurement of how close a color is to grey. Intensity, in this case is the tone of the color. What makes intensity special is that it recognises Yellow(rgb:1,1,0) having a higher combined rgb value than blue(rgb:0,0,1). This is a non-linear tone dimension, which means it's gamma-corrected.

HSL

HSL is also a color coordinate system. It describes colors in Hue, Saturation and Lightness. Lightness specifically puts both yellow(rgb:1,1,0), blue(rgb:0,0,1) and middle grey(rgb:0.5,0.5,0.5) at the same lightness(0.5).

HSV

HSV, occasionally called HSB, is a color coordinate system. It measures colors in Hue, Saturation, and Value(also called Brightness). Value or Brightness specifically reffers to strength at which the pixel-lights on your monitor have to shine. It sets Yellow(rgb:1,1,0), Blue(rgb:0,0,1) and White(rgb:1,1,0) at the same Value(100%)

HSY

HSY is a color coordinate system. It catagorises colors in Hue, Saturation and Luminosity. Well, not really, it uses Luma instead of true luminosity, the difference being that Luminosity is linear while Luma is gamma-corrected and just weights the rgb components. Luma is based on scientific studies of how much light a color reflects in real-life. While like intensity it acknowledges that Yellow(rgb:1,1,0) is lighter than blue(rgb:0,0,1), it also acknowledges that Yellow(rgb:1,1,0) is lighter than Cyan(rgb(0,1,1), based on these studies.

Color, HSV, HSI, HSL, HSY

This takes the Luminosity/Value/Intensity/Lightness of the colours on the lower layer, and combines them with the Saturation and Hue of the upper pixels. We refer to Color HSY as 'Color' in line with other applications.

Hue HSV, HSI, HSL, HSY

Takes the saturation and tone of the lower layer and combines them with the hue of the upper-layer. Tone in this case being either Value, Lightness, Intensity or Luminosity.

Increase Value, Lightness, Intensity or Luminosity.

Similar to lighten, but specific to tone. Checks whether the upper layer's pixel has a higher tone than the lower layer's pixel. If so, the intensity is increased, if not, the lower layer's tone is maintained.

Increase Saturation HSI, HSV, HSL, HSY

Similar to lighten, but specific to Saturation. Checks whether the upper layer's pixel has a higher Saturation than the lower layer's pixel. If so, the Saturation is increased, if not, the lower layer's Saturation is maintained.

Intensity

Takes the Hue and Saturation of the Lower layer and outputs them with the intensity of the upper layer.

Value

Takes the Hue and Saturation of the Lower layer and outputs them with the Value of the upper layer.

Lightness

Takes the Hue and Saturation of the Lower layer and outputs them with the Lightness of the upper layer.

Luminosity

As explained above, actually Luma, but called this way as it's in line with the terminology in other applications. Takes the Hue and Saturation of the Lower layer and outputs them with the Luminosity of the upper layer. The most preferred one of the four Tone blending modes, as this one gives fairly intuitive results for the Tone of a hue

Saturation HSI, HSV, HSL, HSY

Takes the Intensity and Hue of the lower layer, and outputs them with the HSI saturation of the upper layer.

Decrease Value, Lightness, Intensity or Luminosity

Similar to darken, but specific to tone. Checks whether the upper layer's pixel has a lower tone than the lower layer's pixel. If so, the tone is decreased, if not, the lower layer's tone is maintained.

Decrease Saturation HSI, HSV, HSL, HSY

Similar to darken, but specific to Saturation. Checks whether the upper layer's pixel has a lower Saturation than the lower layer's pixel. If so, the Saturation is decreased, if not, the lower layer's Saturation is maintained.

Lighten

Blending modes that lighten the image.

Color Dodge

Similar to Divide. Inverts the top layer, and divides the lower layer by the inverted top layer. This results in a image with emphasized highlights, like Dodging would do in traditional darkroom photography.

Gamma Light

Outputs the upper layer as power of the lower layer.

Hard Light

Similar to Overlay. A combination of the Multiply and Screen blending modes, switching between both at a middle-lightness.

Hard light checks if the colour on the upperlayer has a lightness above 0.5. Unlike overlay, if the pixel is lighter than 0.5,it is blended like in Multiply mode, if not the pixel is blended like in Screen mode.

Effectively, this decreases contrast.

Lighten

With the darken, the upper layer's colors are checked for their lightness. Only if they are Lighter than the underlying color on the lower layer, will they be visible.

Linear Dodge

Exactly the same as Addition.

Put in for compatibility purposes.

Linear Light

Similar to overlay.

Combines Linear Dodge and Linear Burn. When the lightness of the upper-pixel is higher than 0.5, it uses Linear dodge, if not, Linear burn to blend the pixels.

Pin Light

Checks which is darker the lower layer's pixel or the upper layer's double so bright. Then checks which is brighter of that result or the inversion of the doubled lower layer.

//this needs an image badly//

Screen

Perceptually the opposite of Multiply.

Mathematically, Screen takes both layers, inverts them, then multiplies them, and finally inverts them again.

This results in light tones being more opaque and dark tones transparent.

Soft Light(Photoshop) & Soft Light SVG

These are less harsh versions of Hard Light, not resulting in full black or full white.

The SVG version is slightly different to the photoshop version in that it uses a slightly different bit of formula when the lightness of the lower pixel is lower than 25%, this prevents the strength of the brightness increase.

Vivid Light

Similar to Overlay.

Mixes both Color Dodge and Burn blending modes. If the color of the upper layer is darker than 50%, the blending mode will be Burn, if not the blending mode will be Color Dodge.

Warning.png
 
Warning
This algorithm doesn't use color dodge and burn, we don't know WHAT it does do but for Color Dodge and Burn you need to use Hard Mix


Misc

Bumpmap

This filter seems to both multiply and respect the alpha of the input.

Copy

Copies the previous layer exactly. Useful for when using filters and filter-masks.

Copy Red, Green, Blue

This is a blending mode that will just copy/blend a source channel to a destination channel. Specifically, it will take the specific channel from the upper layer and copy that over to the lower layers.

Dissolve

Instead of using transparency, this blending mode will use a random dithering pattern to make the transparent areas look sorta of transparent.

Mix

Allanon

Blends the upper layer as half-transparent with the lower. (It add the two layers together and then halves the value)

Alpha Darken

As far as I can tell this seems to premultiply the alpha, as is common in some file-formats.

Behind

Does the opposite of normal, and tries to have the upper layer rendered below the lower layer.

Erase

This subtracts the opaque pixels of the upper layer from the lower layer, effectively erasing.

Geometric Mean

This blending mode multiplies the top layer with the bottom, and then outputs the square root of that.

Grain Extract

Similar to subtract, the colors of the upper layer are subtracted from the colors of the lower layer, and then 50% grey is added.

Grain Merge

Similar to addition, the colors of the upper layer are added to the colors, and then 50% grey is subtracted.

Hard Mix

Similar to Overlay.

Mixes both Color Dodge and Burn blending modes. If the color of the upper layer is darker than 50%, the blending mode will be Burn, if not the blending mode will be Color Dodge.

Normal

As you may have guessed this is the default Blending mode for all layers.

In this mode, the computer checks on the upper layer how transparent a pixel is, which colour it is, and then mixes the colour of the upper layer with the lower layer proportional to the transparency.

Overlay

A combination of the Multiply and Screen blending modes, switching between both at a middle-lightness.

Overlay checks if the colour on the upperlayer has a lightness above 0.5. If so, the pixel is blended like in Screen mode, if not the pixel is blended like in Multiply mode.

This is useful for deepening shadows and highlights.

Parallel

This one first takes the percentage in two decimal behind the comma for both layers. It then adds the two values. Divides 2 by the sum.

Negative

These are all blending modes which seem to make the image go negative.

Additive Subtractive

Subtract the square root of the lower layer from the upper layer.

Arcus Tangent

Divides the lower layer by the top. Then divides this by Pi. Then uses that in an Arc tangent function, and multiplies it by two.

Difference

Checks per pixel of which layer the pixel-value is highest/lowest, and then subtracts the lower value from the higher-value.

Equivelance

subtracts the underlying layer from the upper-layer. Then inverts that.

Exclusion

This multiplies the two layers, adds the source, and then subtracts the multiple of two layers twice.

Sources

Basic blending modes: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blend_modes Grain Extract/Grain Merge: http://docs.gimp.org/en/gimp-concepts-layer-modes.html For most of Krita's mystery blendingmodes: http://illusions.hu/effectwiki/doku.php?id=list_of_blendings


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