Difference between revisions of "KDevelop5/Manual/Code generation with templates/uk"

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In the next page, you are offered a selection of virtual methods from all inherited classes, as well as some default constructors, destructors and operators. Checking the check box next to a method signature will implement this method in the new class.  
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За допомогою наступної сторінки ви можете вибрати віртуальні методи з успадкованих класів, а також типові конструктори, деструктори і оператори. Реалізувати метод у новому класі можна простим позначенням пунктів з підписами методів.  
  
 
Clicking <menuchoice>Next</menuchoice> brings up a page where you can add members to a class. Depending on the selected template, these may appear in the new class as member variables, or the template may create properties with setters and getters for them. In a language where variable types have to be declared, such as C++, you have to specify both the type and the name of the member, such as <code>int number</code> or <code>QString name</code>. In other languages, you may leave out the type, but it is good practice to enter it anyway, because the selected template could still make some use of it.  
 
Clicking <menuchoice>Next</menuchoice> brings up a page where you can add members to a class. Depending on the selected template, these may appear in the new class as member variables, or the template may create properties with setters and getters for them. In a language where variable types have to be declared, such as C++, you have to specify both the type and the name of the member, such as <code>int number</code> or <code>QString name</code>. In other languages, you may leave out the type, but it is good practice to enter it anyway, because the selected template could still make some use of it.  

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Створення коду за допомогою шаблонів

У KDevelop для створення початкового коду можна використовувати шаблони. Отже, за допомогою шаблонів ви можете уникнути повторного написання поширених частин коду.

Створення класу

Найпоширенішим випадком використання створення коду за шаблоном є, ймовірно, написання нового класу. Щоб створити новий клас у вже створеному проекті, наведіть вказівник миші на теку проекту, клацніть правою кнопкою миші і виберіть у контекстному меню пункт Створити з шаблона. Те саме діалогове вікно може бути відкрито за допомогою меню, пункту Файл -> Створити з шаблона, але використання теки проекту має перевагу встановлення базової адреси для вихідних файлів. Виберіть Клас на панелі вибору категорії, бажану мову програмування та шаблон. Після вибору шаблона класу вам слід вказати інші характеристики нового класу.

Kdevelop-template-selection.png

Спочатку слід вказати ідентифікатор нового класу. Це може бути проста назва (наприклад Bus) або повний ідентифікатор у просторі назв (наприклад Transportation::Bus). У останньому випадку KDevelop виконає обробку ідентифікатора і відповідним чином відокремить простір назв від назви класу. За допомогою цієї самої сторінки ви можете додати основні класи для нового класу. Ви можете зауважити, що у деяких шаблонах уже передбачено вибір основних класів. Ви можете просто вилучити зайві і/або додати інші основні класи. Тут вам слід вказати інструкцію наслідування повністю. Звичайно ж, така інструкція залежить від вибраної мови програмування, це буде public QObject для C++, extends SomeClass для PHP або просто назва класу для Python.

Kdevelop-template-inheritance.png

За допомогою наступної сторінки ви можете вибрати віртуальні методи з успадкованих класів, а також типові конструктори, деструктори і оператори. Реалізувати метод у новому класі можна простим позначенням пунктів з підписами методів.

Clicking Next brings up a page where you can add members to a class. Depending on the selected template, these may appear in the new class as member variables, or the template may create properties with setters and getters for them. In a language where variable types have to be declared, such as C++, you have to specify both the type and the name of the member, such as int number or QString name. In other languages, you may leave out the type, but it is good practice to enter it anyway, because the selected template could still make some use of it.

Kdevelop-template-members.png

In the following pages, you can choose a license for you new class, set any custom options required by the selected template, and configure output locations for all the generated files. By clicking Finish, you complete the assistant and create the new class. The generated files will be opened in the editor, so you can start adding code right away.

After creating a new C++ class, you will be given an option of adding the class to a project target. Choose a target from the dialog page, or dismiss the page and add the files to a target manually.

If you chose the Qt Object template, checked some of the default methods, and added two member variables, the output should look like on the following picture.

Kdevelop-template-result.png

You can see that data members are converted into Qt properties, with accessor functions and the Q_PROPERTY macros. Arguments to setter functions are even passed by const-reference, where appropriate. Additionally, a private class is declared, and a private pointer created with Q_DECLARE_PRIVATE. All this is done by the template, choosing a different template in the first step could completely change the output.

Creating a new unit test

Even though most testing frameworks require each test to also be a class, KDevelop includes a method to simplify the creation of unit tests. To create a new test, right click on a project folder and choose Create from Template. In the template selection page, choose Test as the category, then choose your programming language and template and click Next.

You will be prompted for the test name and a list of test cases. For the test cases, you only have to specify a list of names. Some unit testing frameworks, such as PyUnit and PHPUnit, require that test cases start with a special prefix. In KDevelop, the template is responsible for adding the prefix, so you do not have to prefix the test cases here. After clicking Next, specify the license and output locations for the generated files, and the test will be created.

Unit tests created this way will not be added to any target automatically. If you are using CTest or some other testing framework, make sure to add the new files to a target. KDevelop provides a Unit Tests toolview that integrates with CTest.

Other files

While classes and unit tests receive special attention when generating code from templates, the same method can be used for any kind of source code files. For example, one could use a template for a CMake Find module or a .desktop file. This can be done by choosing Create from Template, and selecting the wanted category and template. If the selected category is neither Class nor Test, you will only have the option of choosing the license, any custom options specified by the template, and the output file locations. As with classes and tests, finishing the assistant will generate the files and open them in the editor.

Managing templates

From the File -> New from Template assistant, you can also download additional file templates by clicking the Get more Templates... button. This opens a Get Hot New Stuff dialog, where you can install additional templates, as well as update or remove them. There is also a configuration module for template, which can be reached by clicking Settings -> Configure KDevelop -> Templates. From there, you can manage both file templates (explained above) and project templates (used for creating new projects).

Kdevelop-template-manager.png

Of course, if none of the available template suit your project, you can always create new ones. The easiest way is probably to copy and modify an existing template, while a short tutorial and a longer specification document are there to help you. To copy an installed template, open the template manager by clicking Settings -> Configure KDevelop... -> Templates, select the template you wish to copy, then click the Extract Template button. Select a destination folder, then click OK, and the contents of the template will be extracted into the selected folder. Now you can edit the template by opening the extracted files and modifying them. After you are done, you can import your new template into KDevelop by opening the template manager, activating the appropriate tab (either Project Templates or File Templates) and clicking Load Template. Open the template description file, which is the one with the suffix either .kdevtemplate or .desktop. KDevelop will compress the files into a template archive and import the template.

Note-box-icon.png
 
Note
When copying an existing template, make sure you rename it before importing it again. Otherwise, you will either overwrite the old template, or will end up with two templates with identical names. To rename a template, rename the description file to something unique (but keep the suffix), and change the Name entry in the description file.


If you want to write a template from scratch, you can start with a sample C++ class template by creating a new project and selecting the C++ Class Template project in category KDevelop.


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