Revision as of 19:22, 16 September 2010 by Claus chr (talk | contribs) (Created page with 'Hvis din X-server allerede understøtter "compositing". så er det let at aktivere effekterne: Åbn <menuchoice>Systemindstillinger -> Skrivebord -> Skrivebordseffekter</menuchoi...')
Jump to: navigation, search
An empty desktop in KDE 4.5
Den pålidelige og fleksible vinduesmanager til KDE's Plasma-skrivebord, nu med effekter!

Hovedpunkter

  • Stabil og pålidelig
  • Compositing, 3D effekter
  • Nem tilpasning
  • Forbedret effektivitet

KWin (udtalt "kwin") er vinduesmanageren for KDE's skrivebord Plasma. Den giver dig fuld kontrol over dine vinduer og sikrer at de ikke er i vejen men hjælper dig i dit arbejde. Den håndterer vinduesdekorationerne, linjen ovenover hvert vindue med (konfigurerbare) knapper som luk, maksimer og minimer. Den tager sig også af placering af vinduer og skift imellem dem.

KWin understøtter compositing, hvilket betyder brug af 3D effekter i håndteringen af vinduer. Dette kan få arbejdet med vinduer til at gå glattere, lettere, mere effektivt og mere naturligt. Den stiller beskedne krav til hardwaren, så noget nær enhver computer siden 2002 er understøttet. Der er stadig nogle småproblemer med noget hardware; mere om dette finder du på techbase

Praktiske funktioner

Klik med den højre museknap på en vinduesdekoration eller brug Systemindstillinger for at få adgang til den nye, lettere konfiguration af KWin. Her kan du aktivere effekter til mere effektiv vindueshåndtering. Du kan for eksempel bruge Present Windows som en effekt til vinduesskift. I stedet for at vise dig ikoner eller små forvisninger af dine applikationer arrangerer den dem i et gitter, sådan at du hurtigt kan vælge den rigtige. Bare tast Alt-Tab og hold Alt tasten nede. Nu kan du bruge Tab tasten til at skifte mellem vinduer eller bruge musen til at aktivere ønskede vindue. Taster du Alt-Tab hurtigt, så aktiverer som altid du det næste vindue i rækken.

Hvis din X-server allerede understøtter "compositing". så er det let at aktivere effekterne: Åbn Systemindstillinger -> Skrivebord -> Skrivebordseffekter og sæt et flueben ved Aktivér skrivebordseffekter på fanebledet Generelt. Mere avancerede compositing-indstillinger (så som VSync-operationer, Direct rendering, compositing-tilstand) kan foretages på fanebladet Avanceret. For at tilpasse KWin-effekternes opførsel går du til fanebladet Alle effekter og vælger de plugins, som du vil bruge. Bemærk venligst, at kun nogle af plugins'ene virker med XRender-baseret compositing. Du skal bruge OpenGL-tilstanden for at få det fulde udbytte.

Employing motion physics, KWin provides your windows with a more natural feel. New desktop effects like the Cube desktop switcher and Magic Lamp minimize animation have been added. Improvements in the existing effects make window management smoother than ever. KWin has seen many performance improvements to enable these effects even on low-end hardware. Elaborate checks have been build in to ensure users with low-end hardware are not presented with an unusable setup. KWin detects the capabilities of the hardware and if needed gracefully scales its effects down. You can take control and disable these checks or change settings like the global animation speed to fine-tune your experience. When your computer is under heavy load, KWin will automatically disable the compositing temporarily to keep things running smoothly. It will notify you if it does so, and you can re-enable compositing by pressing SHIFT+ALT+F12. Finally, support for multiple screen handling has been improved in KWin using the new Kephal library. You can move maximized windows between Xinerama screens and the addition of external screens is handled correctly.

More information about what was introduced in KDE SC 4.2 can be found at the following link:

Tutorials

You want an application to launch in a specific size and position every time

Sometimes the screen position of an application is vital to your comfort, so use the flexibility of KWin to make sure it's always where you want it.

Position the window where you want it to open, then right-click on the title-bar, choosing Advanced -> Special Window Settings. This will open a settings window, with appropriate entries already made. All you need to do now is select the Geometry tab and check Position and Size. OK - you're finished!

Script the window manager from the command line

Use the WMIface utility.

Customise the position of titlebar buttons

Take a look at System Settings -> Appearance -> Windows -> Buttons tab - and enable Use custom titlebar button positions. The options open to you may depend on your distribution or theme, and it's clear that there is more to come.

Perhaps you would like more space between the Close button and the Minimise/Maximise pair? So you will want to add a spacer - two if you wish. The way to do it was not intuitive to me. The description on the customise page seems clear enough once you understand it, but it wasn't immediately to me.

To simply move things around you work with the speciman titlebar - that is the dark blue bar with a large KDE on it. Drag icons there and you will see them move in the preview window at the bottom of the screen.

You may find that you have other icons available to you. A circle indicates that the button will set that window on all desktops. Another icon that you may find useful is Shade - a toggle between rolled up (titlebar only visible) and normal view. These icons are added by dragging from the text description window onto the speciman title bar - just position them as you want to use them.

If you prefer a Classic, KDE3-style Desktop

Right-click on your desktop - select Desktop Settings (or Appearance Settings, in some distros). Change the Type: from Desktop to Folder View. The whole desktop is now a folderview, and another right-click on the desktop will allow you to select FolderView Settings. Set the folderview to the directory you want to use as your desktop.

A video of KWin features

A demonstration of features is here

Open applications directly into a different desktop

Use commands like

kstart --desktop 4 kate

Using with small screens (eg Netbooks)

Make the window decorations smaller

System Settings -> <menuchoice>Appearance -> Windows -> Window Decoration tab - select Laptop.

Change the base fonts

On many netbooks the screen is very clear, so that reading fonts much smaller than you expect is feasible. On my Acer Aspire One I find that 8 point is a good base settings.

Make Firefox use smaller fonts

Experimentation with about:config did not bring satisfactory results. Do this instead. Download and install gtk-chtheme from this website. Using that tool you can either set a specific font size, or better still, tell it to use your KDE desktop settings. This will work with Firefox as well as any gtk applications that you use.

KMail's Aggregation options take up too much space

See this FAQ to change it.

KMail's Folder-List Tooltips hide too many folder names

See this FAQ to change their behaviour

Gallery

The Gallery holds many screenshots of past and present desktops and effects.


Content is available under Creative Commons License SA 4.0 unless otherwise noted.