Welcome to the second part of my tutorial! This somewhat boring (but still useful!) episode will cover:
Krita has lots of ways to manage layers and their visibility. I'll be addressing some of them in more detail.
Suppose you want to draw some clothes. You have a "base" layer, and you want to add:
You want everything to be constrained to the area of the drawn clothes.
Alpha-inheritance locks the visibility state of a layer to only areas visible on all the layers below it, in the same stack. Basically, the layer "inherits" their visibility. Technically, this enables or disables the layer's alpha (as shown in the "channels" docker).
|Layers outside a layer group ("Base 1" in the example) can't affect individual layers in the group ("Group" in the above example), but it can affect the group as a whole, treating the group as a normal layer in the group.|
To activate alpha inheritance for a group:
|This feature works with vectors layers, which makes it handy to create comic frames. See Anitim's Comic with Krita tutorial on Youtube for more.|
A layer or group's transparency mask basically dictates their visibility state:
To edit a mask, you basically have to erase on it. You basically have 3 ways to give shape to a mask: create from selection, brush on erase mode and gradients.
If you have a selection active, then when you make a mask, the mask will automatically take the shape of the selection.
Tip: You can feather the selection for a more smooth transition: choose in the top menu.
You can toggle on the "Erase mode" on most brushes with E. Drawing on the mask again with a not-invisible brush will allow you to "add opacity" again.
|The opacity setting from the top toolbar seems to be ignored: even if you lower the opacity from there, you will still end up erasing 100% from the mask. This is rather a problem when you want just partial transparency.|
However, opacity from the brush editor seems to work. So, if you need partial transparency, open up the brush editor, lower the opacity there, and erase away.
You can also use gradients on "Erase" mode. Remember that on erase mode:
You can create custom gradients too. The example left uses a radial gradient with several full opacity and partial opacity stops.
Erase mode works a lot like masks, except:
Basically, easier than making masks, though you have to stuff corresponding layers into sub-folders.
I'm sure you've noticed by now that Krita has: filter brushes, filter masks And filter layers?
|Filter brush||"Draw" filters with a brush!|| -Not everything works as expected...|
- Many default settings start with "none", so remember to actually enter a value!
|Filter mask||Apply a filter to a layer or group!|| - Non-destructive editing! You can turn the filter-mask on or off at any time. |
- Right-click and selectto adjust filter settings
|Filter layer||Applies filter to All layers below it|| - You can tweak your whole image with a filter without flattening it first!|
- You can erase parts of the filter layer!
Local selections basically allow you to "save" a selection to a layer. With a local selection "on":
In this example, after creating the first local selection, I then inverted it and created a second one. As you see, this allowed me to divide my (transparency-locked) base clothes layer into two, so I can color them independently.
|When you create the local selection from a selection, there are two selections active at the same time:
This will lead to some confusion when you want to switch the selections off. To switch them both off:
Tip: As with layers and masks, you can duplicate a local selection and drag it to another layer.
Krita can make either duplicate or clones of layers.
Tip: You can clone groups! The output is a single, dynamically-updated layer!
What is this for? Well:
Still awake? I'm going to give you an overview of features seen so far, but before that I'll address a limitation of just using alpha-locking (transparency-locking).
Filling in a flat area, locking the transparency and just shading on it will satisfy most people's requirements. There is one problem though: edge cases.
This is actually quite problematic if you're smudging near the edges to blend some colors.
Both alpha-inheritance and masks allow you to overcome this issue, because additional portions are just hidden, Krita still uses the hidden parts for calculating smudging and such.
So anyway, overview:
|Visibility||Toggles layer visibility||(obvious features available for all layers and groups)|
|Layer-locking||Prevents you from drawing on layer accidentally||(obvious features available for all layers and groups)|
|Alpha-locking||You can only draw on areas already opaque||Issues when smudging edges|
|Alpha-inheritance||"Anti-spillover" for shading and texturing layers||Can't affect layers in sub-groups individually, but you can alpha-lock a group|
|Masks||Transparency fade effects||Transparency can only be tweaked by "erasing" for now. Opacity for erase brushes must be tweaked from the brush editing panel, not the top toolbar|
|Erase-mode layers||Like masks, but on a layer||Easier to use than masks, and opacity for erase brushes can be tweaked from top toolbar. Affects all layers beneath it, so caution!|
|Filter brush/mask/layer||Apply filters through a brush/Mask/Layer||Filter masks or layers allow non-destructive and/or partial aplication of filters. Turn off visibility when drawing to avoid slow-down.|
|Local selections||Save selections to a layer||Helps you further divide a layer into zones|
|Duplicate layers||Copy of a layer, group or mask||Good for some composite effects|
|Clone layers||Linked layer that updates when the original is updated||Cannot be edited independently save for moving. Allows easy re-use of elements. Cloning a group produces a single, easy to manage and dynamically-updated layer.|
|Vector layers*||Comic frames (See Anitim's Krita Comic tutorial on Youtube)||Vectors are editable shapes, which makes them handy for comic frames. Vector drawing is a whole genre, though Krita isn't specialized in vectors, so I won't cover it here...|
The above are just some usage suggestions. I figured most of them from scratch, so I don't know how other people use them.
You will now automatically draw in greyscale on this layer, even if you use a color brush. Other layers remain color layers.
That's it for layers, layers management and layer properties. (ugh)
Alternate name: "This is where you learn to transform and tweak stuff." A lot here happens to be basic stuff available to most image editing programs, but then again people have to start somewhere to learn the basics...
Basic stuff, that everybody should know.
Colors and color adjustment operations:
And so you get a usable lineart! Set it to the top of the layers on "multiple" mode. Deevad also has a tutorial that covers lineart preparation (among others).
You can access 8 selection tools from the toolbar:
Tip: Drawing with path selection:
Actions for selections:
From left to right:
Other options from top menu includes:
And of course, you want to make proper selections before transformations.
Krita's transformation tool has 2 modes: a normal-ish one, and a weird deform one called "warp" (good for deforming textures?).
The mouse icon changes when you hover near the points. Unfortunately the screenshot doesn't show this, but you can try for yourself.
For the most part, this works fantastic! Unfortunately the perspective function seems more like it's from a 3D program than a 2D program: it rotates the entire plane around the cross.
I admit I would have preferred a perspective interface that works more like Krita's perspective guides (i.e., you drag the corners individually), which is also how it works in Gimp. In the worst case, you could try switching to Gimp for perspective transform then switching back.
Warp mode is this strange mode where you deform the drawing by dragging on control points.
Although I haven't tried it yet, you could try it for deforming fabric texture, for example.
You can also place control points yourself with :
Finally, you can deform things with the deform brush (find it where all the other brushes are). ! I'm not sure why the default is, but there are actually 8 modes. Access them from in the brush editing panel.
Here I also turned on the mode, which makes the brush keep working as long as the mouse button is pressed down (instead of having to move the brush).
This concludes this episode of this tutorial. As you may have realized, Krita allows you to achieve a same result with many different ways. It's up to you to choose which one you are most comfortable with.
Other tutorials mentioned here: