Dolphin 文件管理

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This page is a translated version of the page Dolphin/File Management and the translation is 77% complete.

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发掘 Dolphin

第一部分将带您预览 Dolphin。第二部分涉及不同类型的书签的概念。第三部分讨论文件管理。最后,我们来看'更酷的东西'。可以点击图片查看大图。

Dialog-information.png
 
资讯
下面提到的路径,视你的发行版不同可能是~/.kde 或 ~/.kde4


常规信息

Dolphin 或是 Konqueror?

这份指南描述的是 KDE SC 4 的 DolphinKonqueror 是 KDE 2 和 KDE 3 的标准文件管理器。你依然可以在 KDE SC 4 中使用 Konqueror 当默认文件管理器。在 KDE SC 4.2 之后, 打开系统设置,然后找到默认应用程序,选择 Konqueror 或其他程序当默认文件管理器。

介绍 Dolphin

Dolphin 是 KDE 软件集(Software Compilation)的文件管理器。

我会展示如何用 Dolphin' 完成一般的文件管理任务和定制它满足你的需要。


Dolphin Plasma5 thumbnail.png


当我们从Kickoff菜单里打开 Dolphin,他首先显示的是开始目录- 通常是 主文件夹

在文件夹里点击即可打开文件(如果你喜欢双击打开,KDE 4.5 中在 系统设置 -> 硬件部分 -> 输入设备 -> 鼠标部分改)。

要选择和取消选择文件/文件夹,悬停鼠标指针到图标上,点击出现的+号来选择,点-号来取消选择。像是这样:


Dolphin folder hover.png


当你点击+号,文件/文件夹就会被选中。你可以用这种方法选定多个文件(鼠标拖拽矩形选择文件也是有效的)。你也可以用Ctrl + 单击一次一个的选定/取消选定,Shift + 单击来连续操作。

多个被选中的文件看起来是这样的:


Dolphin folder hovered deselect.png


创建新文件夹:你可以在当前活动的目录下用右键菜单创建新文件夹,或快捷键 F10

Tabs: Dolphin supports tabbed browsing. A new tab can be opened for example from File -> New Tab (if you have enabled menu bar), by Ctrl + T or by middle mouse click on folder icon and navigation buttons.

Note-box-icon.png
 
Note
Starting from KDE 4.7, Dolphin's menu bar is hidden, but easy to reach and restore. If you prefer menu bar to be present, you can enable it by selecting Control -> Show Menubar or pressing Ctrl + M.


点击如何文件夹的时候都会默认启动 Dolphin。也能在 Kickoff 菜单里启动它.

Location Bar

Dolphin integrates a new concept to use the location bar in a faster and more precise way: therefore a breadcrumb location bar is used. Instead of displaying the complete path only the navigation points starting from one of the places are displayed as buttons. By clicking one of these buttons you navigate directly to this folder. In this way you can reach a parent folder from a sub folder in a very quick way.

在代表文件夹的按钮之间有一个小的箭头也是个可点击的按钮。点击这个箭头你能看到一份列表,列表里是跟你现在这个目录同级的所有子目录(译者注:这说的是你点当前这个文件夹按钮前的「箭头」的情况,其实列表显示的就是「箭头」前那个文件夹的所有子文件夹),使你能快速改变目录。


快速改变目录


There is also a classical location bar which displays the complete path. To use this style you can right click on the Location Bar and select Show Full Path. If you want the Location bar to become editable, trigger the keyboard shortcut Ctrl + L or select Control -> Location Bar -> Editable Location . By clicking on the free space next to the last displayed folder in the breadcrumb style you can switch to an editable Location Bar as well. If the editable style is selected a checkmark is displayed at the end of the location bar. This checkmark is a button which can be used to change back to the breadcrumb style. Of course menu and keyboard shortcut can be used, too.

拆分视图

Dolphin 能够拆分当前文件夹视图产生出两个彼此相邻的文件夹视图,参考Midnight Commander。这种浏览方式非常适合从一个文件夹复制或移动文件到另一个文件夹。


Dolphin split view.png


You can split the view by clicking on Split in the tool bar or, if you have enabled menu bar, View -> Split (keyboard shortcut F3). To change back to only one folder view you can click on Close or just press F3 again. The symbol will show you which view will be closed. Depending on the currently active view the minus sign will be shown in the left or right part of the symbol. The active view will be closed. This is important to know if you want to use the keyboard shortcut. There is also a button for splitting and closing the view situated in the toolbar. This button displays the minus symbol as well, so it is easy to know which view would be closed.

Of course each view has its own location bar and each view can use a different view mode.

视图模式

Dolphin supports three different view modes: "Icons", "Details" and "Compact". These can be changed from Control -> View Mode , via the menu View -> View Mode (if menu bar is enabled) or via the keyboard shortcuts Ctrl+1 (Icons), Ctrl+2 (Compact) and Ctrl+3 (Details). There is also a button for each view mode in the toolbar and the context menu of the folder view offers a submenu View mode to change the view mode.

图标

Each file and each folder is represented by an icon in the view mode "Icons". Instead of displaying an icon a preview of the file can be shown. This behaviour can be turned on/off via the menu View -> Preview (if menu bar is enabled) or via the main toolbar button Preview. There is a size limit for the file previews. This size limitation can be configured via Settings -> Configure Dolphin -> View Modes -> General option File Previews -> Maximum file size. There is also an option to use thumbnails embedded in files. In KDE 4.5 Previews are enabled (and maximum size defined) by Settings -> Configure Dolphin -> General page -> Preview tab. Starting from KDE 4.8, the aforementioned settings can be configured via Control -> Configure Dolphin -> View Modes.

The files in the currently selected folder are sorted in alphabetical order by default. The way of sorting can be changed via menu Control -> Sort by. The following sort criteria are available:

  • Name
  • Size
  • Date
  • Permissions
  • Owner
  • Group
  • Type
  • Link Destination
  • Path

Additionally the sorting sequence can be defined by Control -> Sort by -> Descending or Control -> Sort by -> Folders First.

There is the possibility to display additional information below the icons. These can be turned on/off via Control -> Additional Information or View -> Additional Information (if menu bar is enabled). In principal the same criteria which are available as search criteria can be selected.

You can group the icons to achieve a better overview. This is turned on via Control -> Show in Groups or View -> Show in Groups (if menu bar is enabled). Now the icons are grouped and the groups are divided by a horizontal line containing the name of the group as caption. The grouping is related to the selected search criteria.


Dolphin show in groups effect.png

细节

"细节"视图模式下对比"图标"视图模式默认会显示许多额外的信息。所有文件都列在一个表格内。表头的关联菜单能够添加额外的列。可用的列如下:

  • 大小
  • 日期
  • 权限
  • 拥有者
  • 群组
  • 类型
  • Link Destination
  • Path

分列 "名称" 总是显示的。点击每个分列的顶部,列表会根据这个分列重新排序。点击分列顶部,分类序列会复原(译者注:靠(#‵′) 为什么我这不会恢复,只会反向再排序一次)。

Since KDE 4.1 it is possible to display the folders as a tree. In this mode a plus sign is shown next to the folder. Plus sign has been replaced by > symbol in newer KDE versions. By clicking on this sign the folder is expanded and all containing sub folders and files are also shown in the table but they are attenuated. By clicking the sign, which displays a minus now (or an arrow pointing downwards in latest versions), again the expansion is closed again. Of course the tree structure can be used for as many folders as wished. In latest KDE releases, the tree view is enabled by default, but can be deactivated via Control -> Configure Dolphin -> View Modes -> Details with option Expandable Folders.

分列

View mode "Columns" was inspired by the file manager Finder of Mac OS X. Entering a sub folder did not replace the current folder view but the content of the sub folder was listed in an additional column next to the column of the parent folder. This could be used for several hierarchies, so that you could navigate in an easy and fast way in the file system. Since KDE 4.8, view mode "Columns" has been dropped and will not be available in future Dolphin releases.

Setting defaults for all folders

Under Control -> Adjust View Properties (or under the menu item View -> Adjust View Properties if you have enabled menu bar) you can set any of these attributes to be the default for all folder views.

面板

Dolphin contains several panels, which can be activated via menu Control -> Panels. Each panel can be placed in the left or right docking area. To move a panel you have to unlock panels (right clik on a panel and select Unlock Panels), click on the header and Drag&Drop the panel. The area where the panel will be placed on mouse released is highlighted. It is possible to stack panels on top of each other. In this case the panels are placed into tabs.

在每个面板的标题有两个按钮。接近标题的按钮可以游离(undock)面板。这使得面板成为一个独立的窗口「漂浮」于 Dolphin上。但窗口还是与 Dolphin结合的,不能在没有 Dolphin时显示,不能像普通窗口一样最小化。再次点击按钮,面板可以回复停靠。第二个按钮会关闭面板。

非模态窗口(Non Modal Dialogs)

当移动,复制或删除文件/目录,这个对话框甚至会在操作还没完成的时就消失不见。然后一个进度条便出现在屏幕右下角,之后也会消失,如果你想要查看进度你需要点击系统托盘里的一个小的「i」信息图标。

Warning.png
 
警告
没使用过这种工作方式的新使用者(甚至是有经验的使用者也是)可以这样理解,如果你正在移动,复制或删除大的目录,之后你需要用右下角的图标去监视操作的进度。

如果你接着做某些动作的话,可能会使用不完整的文件结构导致出现损坏的文件。

已经警告过你了!


地址

Dolphin contains a new kind of bookmarks Places. These are displayed in a panel which can be activated via Control -> Panels -> Places (keyboard shortcut F9). The default Places are identical to the ones shown in the category Computer of the K-Menu Kickoff.

点击地址中一个,他就会在当前文件夹视图内打开。右键关联菜单能够编辑「地址」或再次删除它们。同样能临时隐藏个别的条目。

文件夹的关联菜单能用来添加这个文件夹作为一个条目到「地址」面板,有个菜单项是添加到地址。你也能拖放一个文件夹到「地址」面板。

地址面板也包含了链接到可移动设备比如USB-keys或CD的条目。如果设备被挂载会显示一个小的「插头图标指示」。关联菜单能够卸载这个设备。

「地址」被使用作为「面包屑导航栏」中的基础,导航栏中显示的地址,起点就是「地址」中与其有关的最近的父文件夹。

信息

The information panel can be activated via Control -> Panels -> Information (keyboard shortcut F11). This panel displays a preview or an icon of the currently selected file/folder or of the file/folder below the mouse cursor. Some additional information like change date or size to the file/folder is displayed as well.

信息面板提供了给文件评星级,添加注释或标记文件的可能性。这是为桌面提供语义网络特性的语义桌面Nepomuk的一种界面。自KDE 4.2后,可以通过搜索「标记」(tags)搜索语义链接。现在的「标记」(tags)仅给了对未来版本的一个展望。


信息面板l


Ktip.png
 
提示
如果你想知道一些文件中缺失的mp3 ID标签(标题,时间。。。),那最有可能是ID3v2标签丢失了。你可以自行添加ID3v2标签,比如用 KID3


文件夹

A panel providing a tree structure for the file system can be displayed via Control -> Panels -> Folders (keyboard shortcut F7). The tree structure offers the possibility by clicking the > and ˇ signs to expand/collapse sub folders. By clicking on one of the folders the content will be displayed in the current view.

终端

The terminal emulator Konsole can be displayed directly in Dolphin via Control -> Panels -> Terminal (keyboard shortcut F4). This makes it possible to use shell commands directly in Dolphin. The terminal is opened in the folder which is displayed in the current view. Shift + F4 opens Konsole in new window.


带终端的 Dolphin

外部链接

维基百科- Dolphin

通向KDE 4之路: Dolphin 和 Konqueror

Ars Technica: A First Look at Dolphin

Youtube - KDE 4 rev 680445 - Dolphin

Introducing KDE 4 Blog - Dolphin

文件系统导航

书签和地址

KDE3下你能在 Konqueror 里创建书签,但是他们对其他任何程序都没用。KDE SC 4.x 有着长足的进步变得更灵活了 - 但也不可避免的更复杂了。实际上KDE SC 4有三种类型的'书签',需要区别开来。他们属于不同的文件,各有不同的功能。


KDE3里的Konqueror并不共享书签


三种类型的书签

首先,有一种只有 Konqueror 能用的书签-web 书签。这些都保存在~/.kde/share/apps/konqueror/bookmarks.xml。其次有一种在Dolphin里叫做地址的书签。这种包括了 Dolphin文件管理器在内的所有程序都能用到。每次你用 文件 > 打开 你就会看到这种类型的书签。第三种书签是 程序书签 。那些书签共享一个文件,而与设置他们的程序无关,对所有程序都可用。随后有更详细的。

启用书签

在大多数发行版这种书签默认情况下没启用。要使用书签我们首先必须启用他们。打开一个文件 > 在KDE程序选择打开,你会看到,在图标面板的右侧区域,有一个扳手。从下拉列表中选择显示书签


启用书签


"地址"-全系统的导航

这里是一组默认的 地址项 -

主文件夹
网络
回收站

但你能添加其他地址。在 Dolphin 里,右击一个文件夹并选择添加到地址边栏


添加一个书签到地址


默认"地址"就在所有程序里可见。如果你想要让他限制在 Dolphin 内,你需要右击地址列表里的新名称,那你会找到编辑他的选项。有个复选框仅在使用此程序(Dolphin)时显示


这个地址项只会在Dolphin里可见


如果你读取 ~/.kde4/share/apps/kfileplaces/bookmarks.xml 文件你会看到这个命令的处理结果。

在有些程序的文件菜单里也有选项添加文件夹到地址。眼下,然而,程序在哪些功能可用上不一样。要记住重要的事情是默认情况下地址项目对所有程序可用的是在 文件 > 打开对话框。

程序中的书签

这是第三种类型的书签。还记得打开 文件 > 打开 使用的扳手图标吗?在他旁边有一个黄色的星星。这就是 书签管理菜单


这里管理程序书签


这里你能定义书签,这书签在任何程序中同一菜单里都是可见的。他们存储在一个文件内,~/.kde4/share/apps/kfile/bookmarks.xml,他被拥有所有那种菜单的所有程序使用。

限制在某个程序内

一些程序允许你编辑地址菜单中的项目。例如,如果在Gwenview,你右击地址中的文件夹,你可以设置选项成仅在使用此程序(Gwenview)时显示


限制某个书签在某个程序内


如果你需要限制在的程序还不允许你那样做的话,剩下唯一的方法是编辑这文件 ~/.kde4/share/apps/kfileplaces/bookmarks.xml。你需要直接添加这行<OnlyInApp>appname</OnlyInApp>到</metadata>标记上面。

Dolphin 的压缩管理

现在管理压缩很容易的。 Dolphin里任何的目录下,选择高亮你想要压缩的文件,右击。然后用压缩选项,你能创建RAR压缩包,Gzipper tar压缩包,或是定义另一个你建立好的压缩模式。


创建压缩包


类似的,如果你右击一个现有的压缩文件,你会看到添加在右击菜单里的一系列动作。你能解压这个压缩包的内容到当前文件夹,到自动判定的子文件夹或是到另一个你选择的地方。

若你要添加文件到现有的压缩包,你可以选择用Ark打开


管理现有的压缩包


更多酷的操作

Change a File Association on-the-fly

Have you ever wanted to open a file, only to find that it is associated with an application that is not of your choice? You can, of course, alter this in Kickoff -> Computer -> System Settings -> Common Appearance and Behavior -> File Associations. But Dolphin and Konqueror offer you a quick and cool method for changing a single association.

右击文件,并选择属性。第一行是描述,像是这样的:
Type: XML document

在同级,右侧,有个「扳手」图标。点击图标,你可以添加或改变一个关联。

类似的,对于文件夹,你可以修改默认的文件管理器为(或非)Konqueror,你也可以选择,或添加另一个图片浏览器为可用的关联。

动作子菜单

动作子菜单为 Dolphin 带来了很多很酷的东西%>_<%。一些可选项只在你选择适用的文件时出现。部分选项如下

  • 转换图片文件到另一种格式
  • 预览文件
  • 用KGet下载远程文件
  • 依据安装的加密软件签名和/或加密文件

转录和拷贝音频CD音轨

  • 插入音频 CD
  • Dolphin 里进入这张 CD:他必定会作为「标卷」的形式出现在你的 Dolphin「地址」里或你能在地址栏上输入 audiocd:/ 进入。


Dolphin 里浏览音频 CD


现在你注意到 Dolphin提供每个音轨的 WAV 文件外,再加上:

  • CDA 文件夹,以常见的CDA格式保存了索引信息。
  • 整张 CD 的文件夹,将全部音轨以每种格式(.cda,.flac,.mp3,.ogg,.wav)各保存一份文件,各个文件格式不同,但都覆盖了全部音轨。
  • FLAC 文件夹,包含了翻录成FLAC格式(无损信息格式)的音轨
  • 包含了 CDDB 信息的 Information 文件夹
  • MP3 文件夹,包含了以 MP3 格式存储的所有音轨
  • Ogg 文件夹,包含了翻录成 OGG 格式的音轨。

然后你仅仅只需要复制喜欢的格式的那个文件夹,就获得你那张CD对应的转录版本!


Have your recent files as home

Have your recent files always in Dolphin

Dolphin has access to a large number of file transfer protocols (KIO Slaves). One of those is provided by the KDE semantic search system (Nepomuk). Nepomuk offers a transfer protocol named history. You can navigate to it by entering timeline:/ in the location bar.

One particularly neat thing there is the ability to have the Today folder from the timeline:/ protocol in the Places sidebar (you can just drag it there!). You can then change the name and icon (do a right click on the new Today entry and choose Edit entry Today...).

It could be very useful to have this view of recently used files immediately when you start Dolphin. Unfortunately, as of Dolphin 2.1 (part of KDE SC 4.9) this is not possible without editing the Dolphin configuration file. See this blog for more details on that.

To edit the configuration file, first close all Dolphin windows. Dolphin will save its configuration upon closing, overwriting any changes you might make!

Then use KRunner (Alt + F2) to edit ~/.kde4/share/config/dolphinrc (or ~/.kde/share/config/dolphinrc, depending on your distribution) with KWrite as follows: kwrite ~/.kde4/share/config/dolphinrc. You can of course use any other editor as well, like Kate. In the configuration file, locate the [General] section to edit the HomeUrl into: HomeUrl=timeline:/today and save the file. You should now have the today view as default and have the files you're most often looking for at your fingertips!


This page was last modified on 26 September 2017, at 16:40. Content is available under Creative Commons License SA 4.0 unless otherwise noted.